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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

snakes

snakes  

Proverbial allusions to the snake focus on its venomous bite as representing a lurking danger; it is a type of deceit and treachery, as with reference to the fable by Aesop, in which the man who had ...
archive

archive  

A historical document. The plural form is also applied to the place where such documents are housed, e.g. a county record office.
wealth

wealth  

The total value of a person's net assets. Wealth may be held in various forms: these include money, shares in companies, debt instruments, land, buildings, intellectual property such as patents and ...
Egypt

Egypt  

Pre‐PtolemaicDuring the New Kingdom (Dynasties 18–20, c.1575–1087bc) Egypt expanded into Asia. This great age of Egyptian militarism created in the 18th Dynasty an empire which stretched from the ...
magic

magic  

Magic bullet a medicine or other remedy with wonderful or highly specific properties, especially one that has not yet been discovered. Recorded from the mid 20th century, the term may come from ...
Ben Sira, Book of

Ben Sira, Book of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...denoted A through F. None, unfortunately, encompasses the entire fifty-one chapters of the book. The following list provides those passages extant in the Cairo Genizah manuscripts. MS A, 3.6b–16.26 MS B (written in stichometric form and including a subscription), 30.11–33.3 ; 35.11–38.27b ; 39.15c–51.30 MS C (a compilation of citations), 3.14–18 ; 3.21–22 ; 4.21–23 ; 4.30 ; 4.31 ; 5.4–7 ; 5.9–13 ; 6.18b ; 6.19 ; 6.28 ; 6.35 ; 7.1 ; 7.2 ; 7.4 ; 7.6 ; 7.17 ; 7.20 ; 7.21 ; 7.23–25 ; 18.31b–19.3b ; 20.5–7 ; 20.13 ; 20.22–23 ; 25.8 ; ...

Berakhot

Berakhot   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...7.i.2–3 and 6), reflect the idea of commitment to the laws of God by all the faithful of the covenant ( cf. Ps. 103.20–22 ). Stylistically, the blessings of God and the curses of Belial (4Q286 1–7, 4Q287 b ) are structured as catalogs, in various forms of poetic parallelism and repetition of linguistic forms. The liturgical nature of this work is characterized both by its catalog structure and by poetic repetition ( cf. Ps. 29 , 103.20–22 ; Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men , 22; and esp. Ps. 148.7–13 and the Sabbath hymn of the...

Solomon

Solomon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...every form of magic and divination (for the Essene position on magic and divination, see Lange, 1997 ). [See also Magic and Magical Texts ; Miqtsat Ma῾asei ha-Torah ; and Wisdom Texts .] Bibliography Dupont-Sommer, Andre . The Essene Writings from Qumran . Gloucester, Mass., 1973. Lange, Armin . “The Essene Position on Magic and Divination.” In Legal Texts and Legal Issues: Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten , edited by Moshe Bernstein , F. García...

Judges, Book Of

Judges, Book Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

.... It represents a form of the text independent from any other known text type. In six instances of a total of ten variant readings, the manuscript goes its own way, disagreeing with the Masoretic Text and the Greek tradition. [See Septuagint .] It is the only extant witness that does not include Judges 6.7–10 , although two Hebrew medieval manuscripts and the Septuagint B text also omit verse 7a. Verses 8 through 10 generally have been recognized by modern critics as a literary insertion, attributed in the past to an Elohist source ( G. F. Moore , ICC , ...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Love of Virtue 84 141–42 20 Love of Humanity 84–87 8.11.1 139–40 Cf. CD vi.20–vii.1 Common Property 85–86 8.11.4–5, 10–13 122, 127 20 1QS i.11–13; v.1–2; vi.13–23 (1QS vii.6–8; CD ix.10–16; xiv.12–13) Houses Open to Other Essenes 85 8.11.5 124 Treasury with Elected Treasurer 86, 87 8.11.10 122–23, 125, cf. 134 22 1QS vi.18–20; CD xiii.15–16; xiv.12–17 Winter and Summer Clothes Cf.86 8.11.12 38–39 Cf. 125 Food 86, 91 8.11.5, 10–11 34–37 130–33, 139 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 Treatment of the Ill 87 8.11.13 Cf. CD vi.20–21; xiv.12–17 Treatment of the...

James, Letter Of

James, Letter Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...compiled in its final form by an unknown Christian teacher in the last quarter of the first century ce . It is very difficult to determine more precisely the date of the epistle and its geographical setting. The work is not really a letter at all but a collection of wisdom instructions that can be grouped loosely as follows: the benefits of trials (1.2–18); true religion (1.19–27); impartiality (2.1–13); faith and works (2.14–26); true wisdom (3.1–18); godliness and worldliness (4.1–5:6); and matters of encouragement (5.7–20). The Jewishness of much of...

Esther, Book of

Esther, Book of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...versions of the Book of Esther . Fragments e and f of Tales of the Persian Court are small and do not give much information, although fragment f contains a quotation of Isaiah 14.31–32 , again a startling difference from the Esther corpus, which shows no awareness of other biblical texts. The conclusion that must be drawn concerning Tales of the Persian Court, therefore, is that it is not directly related to the Esther corpus as it has been preserved. However, it is possible that these fragments formed part of a cycle of tales concerning Jewish...

Contracts

Contracts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Hebrew I.O.U. Note from the Second Year of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. ” Eretz Israel 20 (1989), 256–261 (Hebrew) = Journal of Jewish Studies 45 (1994), 286–294. Cotton, Hannah . “ A Cancelled Marriage Contract from the Judaean Desert (XHev/Se Gr. 2). ” Journal of Roman Studies 84 (1994), 64–86. Cotton, Hannah M. “ Loan with Hypothec: Another Papyrus from the Cave of Letters? ” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 101 (1994), 53–59. Cotton, H. M. , E. H. Cockle , and F. G. B. Millar . “ The Papyrology of the Roman Near East: A Survey. ” Journal of...

Genesis Apocryphon

Genesis Apocryphon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...(Hermann Gunkel, W. F. Albright), who maintained that Genesis 14.18–20 originally had nothing to do with Jerusalem. In the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen) xxii.14–15, Melchizedek is said to have brought out “food and drink for Abram and all the men who were with him”; so the “bread and wine” of Genesis 14.18 are interpreted. This agrees with the paraphrase of this Genesis text in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities 1.181 but differs from the sacrificial interpretation given to it by some patristic writers. Again, Genesis 14.20 records that after...

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der (1530–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
681 words

...to the Netherlands. From Antwerp, where an iconoclastic riot had broken out on 20 August, Heyden went to the northern Flemish towns of Axel and Hulst. There he preached from 24 to 29 August and organized further iconoclastic riots. In Antwerp again he joined those resisting the drift of the Reformed toward the Augsburg Confession. After the failure of the rebellion in the Netherlands, he again took up his function as pastor at Frankenthal in March 1567 . Close ties were formed with Philip Marnix van Saint Aldegonde . Heyden presided over the Synod of Emden...

Chronicles, First and Second Books of

Chronicles, First and Second Books of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of Kings , possibly in a nonrevised form (Shenkel). The text of the supplements in 2 Paraleipomena 35–36 is taken from the old, nonrevised Greek of Kings , or at least from an old pre-Lucianic recension (Klein). G. Gerleman and L. C. Allen argue, rather, in favor of a secondary assimilation of both Greek versions. A “Prayer of Manasseh, king of Judah, when the king of Assyria put him in prison” is among the Noncanonical Psalms found at Qumran (4Q381, frg. 33.8; cf. 2 Chr. 33 ). The Second Book of Chronicles 20.7 is alluded to in the Commentary on...

Exodus, Book of

Exodus, Book of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...unusual and perhaps archaic features found in the Masoretic Text are not present in this manuscript. The nunnation on the third person plural imperfect form of the verb rgz , “to tremble,” is missing in verse 14 . The unusual form ᾽eymatah , “terror,” in verse 16 is read as ᾽eymah as with the Samaritan Pentateuch. The archaic third masculine plural pronominal suffix -mo is read as the normal form -m twice in verse 17 . These minor variants seem to show the distinctive language of the poem being homogenized into normal classical Hebrew....

Rewritten Bible

Rewritten Bible   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...forms of the narrative portions of the Torah. The Aramaic Genesis Apocryphon, one of the first seven scrolls to come to light, has stimulated the investigation of Rewritten Bible texts like no other. In its extant portions it is a rewritten form of the stories from Noah to Abraham, offering various kinds of explanatory expansions. The extant fragments of Exposition on the Patriarchs (4Q464) contain reworked biblical material relating to Abraham and Jacob . Much of the Moses tradition is also presented in a reworked form: Apocryphon of Moses (2Q20),...

Carioni, Battista

Carioni, Battista (1460–1534)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
952 words

...Grendler, Paul F. Man Is Almost a God: Fra Battista Carioni between Renaissance and Catholic Reformation. In Humanity and Divinity in Renaissance and Reformation: Essays in Honor of Charles Trinkaus , edited by John W. O'Malley , Thomas M. Izbicki , and Gerald Christianson , pp. 227–249. Leiden and New York, 1993. Only study in English. Emphasizes similarity to humanist conceptions of man's greatness and influence on Catholic Reformation. Pezzella, S. Carioni, Battista (Battista da Crema). In Dizionario biografico degli italiani , vol. 20, pp. 115–118....

Pseudo-Clementine Literature

Pseudo-Clementine Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Qumrân Scrolls, the Ebionites and Their Literature.” Theological Studies 16 (1955), 335–372. Reprinted in slightly abridged form in The Scrolls and the New Testament , edited by Krister Stendahl , pp. 208–231, 291–298. New York, 1957. Useful survey of the early literature on the parallels between the Pseudo-Clementine Literature and the Dead Sea Scrolls, still focused exclusively on the thesis of a Kerygmata Petrou . Jones, F. Stanley . “The Pseudo- Clementines: A History of Research.” The Second Century 2 (1982), 1–33, 63–96. Reprinted in Studies...

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