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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Limerick

Limerick   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, A. Preminger, and I. D. Copestake

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...error to term Lear’s nonsense verse “limericks,” as his use of the form did not conform to the strict pattern outlined above, and indeed the term was not used by Lear himself to describe his own verse. Undoubtedly, however, the success of Lear’s variations on this form led to its widespread and enduring popularity, and it was even adopted by such authors as Alfred , Lord Tennyson , A. C. Swinburne , Rudyard Kipling , R. L. Stevenson , and W. S. Gilbert , until, by the beginning of the 20th c., it had become a fashion. The tendency in the mod. limerick of...

Phalaecean

Phalaecean   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and R. A. Swanson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and Aristophanes ( Ecclesiazusae 942 ff.); the Alexandrian poets employed it for whole poems, e.g., Theokritos ( Epode 20), Phalaikos ( Anthologia Palatina 13.6). In Lat., it is attempted by Laevius and Varro but finds its deepest roots in Catullus, e.g., Ădēste ēndĕcăsyllăbī, quŏt ēstīs. Forty of his 113 extant poems are in hendecasyllables , ranging from love poetry to invective . These have been imitated in mod. accentual form in Ger. by Conrad Gesner ( Mithridates , 1555 ) and in Eng. by Philip Sidney ( Arcadia , “Reason, tell me thy mind, if...

Priamel

Priamel   Reference library

W. H. Race and C. Doak

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...work of two 20th-c. Am. poets, Richard Wilbur and Raymond Carver ; a further study of Carver’s use of the priamel is Kleppe. Other examples can be found in Shakespeare (sonnet 91), Charles Baudelaire (“Au Lecteur”), W. B. Yeats (“An Irish Airman Foresees his Death”), and W. H. Auden (“Law Like Love”). Bibliography F. G. Bergmann , La Priamèle dans les différentes littératures anciennes et modernes (1868) ; W. Uhl , Die deutsche Priamel und ihre Entstehung und Ausbildung (1897) ; K. Euling , Das Priamel bis Hans Rosenplüt (1905) ; F. Dornseiff ,...

Ottava Rima

Ottava Rima   Reference library

A. Preminger, C. Kleinhenz, T.V.F. Brogan., and J. McGann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... Though its origin is obscure, it is clearly a form that evolved in an oral poetic culture. Scholars relate the form to the stanza of the canzone or the sirventes , perhaps in imitation of the Sicilian strambotto that emerged in the 14th c. for long poems ( cantari ) of less than epic length. It was in use in religious verse of late 13th-c. Italy, but only received definitive artistic form in Giovanni Boccaccio ’s Filostrato ( 1335 ?) and Teseida ( 1340–42 ?). It soon became the dominant form of It. narrative verse, being developed in the 15th...

Kind

Kind   Reference library

F. L. Blumberg

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...kinds. In the second half of the 20th c., literary scholars by and large claimed that kinds are properly understood to be “instrument[s] … of meaning” (Fowler 1982 ), interpretive “frames” for looking onto the world (Colie), and “shared assumptions” about how lit. was supposed to function (Orgel). Kind was itself a topos in which ideas were exchanged about the historical devel. of, and contemp. relationship among, literary forms. Bibliography J. C. Scaliger , Select Translations from Scaliger’s Poetics , trans. F. M. Padelford (1905) ; J. E....

Organicism

Organicism   Reference library

H. Janiszewska

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

..., “The Organic Concepts in Aesthetics,” CL 21 (1969) ; Organic Form: The Life of an Idea , ed. G. S. Rousseau (1972) ; G.N.G. Orsini , “Organicism,” Organic Unity in Ancient and Later Poetics (1975) ; E. Rothstein , “‘Organicism,’ Rupturalism, and Ism-ism,” MP 85 (1988) ; J. Neubauer , “Organicist Poetics as Romantic Heritage?” Romantic Poetry , ed. A. Esterhammer (2002) ; C. I. Armstrong , Romantic Organicism: From Idealist Origins to Ambivalent Afterlife (2003) ; F. Beiser , The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German...

Poetry Reading

Poetry Reading   Reference library

P. Middleton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,459 words

...since the middle of the 20th c. and performs a number of functions: it provides publicity and financial support for the careers of poets; it promotes the dissemination of poetry in societies whose mass media pay little attention; it makes possible the borrowing of cultural capital from other events such as conferences, rallies, and social campaigns; and it generates new modes of poetry. Almost all poetry since the 1950s anticipates both silent reading and aural reception, and this duality of reception gives impetus to poetic forms well suited to public...

Lullaby

Lullaby   Reference library

B. Whearty

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and Experience ( 1794 ), while drawing on the “child’s song” aspect of the popular lullaby, use the form to produce sophisticated explorations of the innocence of infancy and the ensnaring chains of adult sexuality. Lullabies have frequently been used as an instrument of cultural and class ventriloquism. While lullaby had long been a form in which an adult lyric masqueraded as a simple song of childhood and men claimed to sing as women, in the 19th and early 20th cs. this practice expanded to explicitly cross racial, ethnic, and class boundaries. Eng. men wrote...

Mime

Mime   Reference library

R. A. Hornsby and T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... refers to a performance that relies exclusively on gesture instead of words, though it may be accompanied by music. This form was also known to the Romans, being introduced by Pylades of Cilicia in 22 bce , but it became a sophisticated and refined form of performance with masks, in contrast to the increasingly vulgar mime described above. A famous late literary example is the dumb show in Hamlet ; popular pantomime was revived in the 20th c. See comedy . Bibliography H. Reich , Der Mimus (1903) ; O. Crusius , Die Mimiamben des Herondas (1926) ; A....

Pastiche

Pastiche   Reference library

C. Bowen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... Describes a work of art that imitates the style, gestures, or forms of an older work or antique model. As a formal descriptor of literary works, the word pastiche dates back centuries; as an evaluative term, its usage gradually acquired a hint of negative or dismissive connotation. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble. It was only in the latter half of the 20th c.—and most esp. in the context of theories of postmod. narrative—that pastiche acquired its current critical purchase. While the term is almost...

Near Rhyme

Near Rhyme   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,025 words

...prosody. In Fr. prosody of the early 20th c., the term accord was proposed by Jules Romains (pseud. of Louis Farigoule , 1885–1972 ) and Georges Chennevière ( 1884–1927 ), poets and theorists of the movement known as unanimism, for a variety of forms of consonance and near rhyme. The accords of Romains were attacked by Maurice Grammont but may have influenced the pararhyme of Wilfred Owen. In fact, near rhyme has played an important role in most of the major Western prosodies of the late 19th and early 20th cs.—not only Brit. ( G. M. Hopkins , ...

Performance

Performance   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, W. B. Fleischmann, T. Hoffman, and T. Carper

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,875 words

...former set by verse form, the latter representing the features that are specific to each performance. But between these lies the realm of expressive style. The two general classes of styles are realistic (naturalistic) and oratorical (declamatory, dramatic, rhapsodic, incantatory). C. S. Lewis once identified two types of performers of metrical verse: “minstrels” (who recite in a singsong voice, letting scansion override sense) and “actors” (who give a flamboyantly expressive recitation, ignoring meter altogether). And early in the 20th c., Robert Bridges ...

Invective

Invective   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...the 20th c., notably by J. V. Cunningham . See dozens , flyting , toast . Bibliography J. Addison , Spectator , no. 23 ; An Anthology of Invective and Abuse (1929) and More Invective (1930), both ed. H. Kingsmill ; J. C. Manning , Blue Invective (1973) ; The Book of Insults, Ancient and Modern , ed. N. McPhee (1978) ; Tygers of Wrath: Poems of Hate, Anger, and Invective , ed. X. J. Kennedy (1981) ; A. Richlin , The Garden of Priapus (1983) ; The Devil’s Book of Verse , ed. R. Conniff (1983) ; The Blasted Pine: An Anthology , ed. F. R....

Parnassianism

Parnassianism   Reference library

A. L. Sells

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...generation such as Paul Valéry in his Album de vers anciens . In England, the work of Banville and others inspired a vogue for Fr. fixed forms such as the villanelle , sestina , and triolet . Bibliography C. Mendès , La Légende du Parnasse contemporain (1884) ; R. Canat , La Renaissance de la Grèce antique (1911) ; M. Ibrovac , J. M. de Heredia: Sa vie, son oeuvre (1923) ; T. Martel , Le Parnasse (1923) ; F. Desonay , Le Rêve hellénique chez les poètes parnassiens (1928) ; E. Estève , Le Parnasse (1929) ; A. Therive , Le Parnasse ...

Ploce

Ploce   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and M. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...in 20th- and 21st-c. poetry. Epizeuxis is common in hip-hop lyrics (e.g., Flo Rida ’s “Low”). Johannes Susenbrotus writes in Epitome troporum ac schematum ( 1563 ) that epizeuxis is valuable “for the sake of greater vehemence” in speech, imitating the iterations natural to moments of great emotion. Sometimes the meaning of the word may be altered by its repetition. Some scholars argue that vehement repetition indicates avoidance or repression, while others believe that ploce concerns simple iterations of a word without a shift in its grammatical form or...

Love Poetry

Love Poetry   Reference library

S. L. Bermann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
5,890 words

...by religious and philosophical thought and by popular poetic practice—and has varied in importance according to historical and cultural context. To generalize greatly, the love lyric in its earliest forms seems to embrace a more earthly love, while med. and early mod. poetry explore more idealizing strains. The enormously diverse love poetry of the late 19th, 20th, and 21st cs. tends again toward less idealized themes. Our oldest known love poems from ancient Egypt reveal a frank appreciation of the earthly nature of love. Sensual themes drawn from popular...

Parody

Parody   Reference library

L. Hutcheon and M. Woodland

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,857 words

...laws came defamation suits against parodists. Yet, early in the 20th c., the Russian formalists prized works like Lord Byron ’s Don Juan because their parodic form coincided with their own theory of the essential conventionality of literary form and the role of parody in its denuding or laying bare (Erlich). Read in contexts rang-ing from T. S. Eliot ’s valorizing of what he called the historical sense to Bakhtin’s privileging of dialogism or double voicing, parody has been welcomed as a form of textual appropriation that self-reflexively foregrounds both...

Long Poem

Long Poem   Reference library

T. Gardner

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Conte , Unending Design: The Forms of Postmodern Poetry (1991) ; R. Greene , Post-Petrarchism (1991) ; S. Kamboureli , On the Edge of Genre (1991) ; P. Quartermain , Disjunctive Poetics: From Gertrude Stein and Louis Zukofsky to Susan Howe (1992) ; L. Keller , Forms of Expansion: Recent Long Poems by Women (1997) ; M. Perloff , 21st-Century Modernism (2002) ; B. McHale , The Obligation Toward the Difficult Whole (2004) ; J. Moffett , The Search for Origins in the Twentieth-Century Long Poem (2007) ; H. F. Tucker , Epic: Britain’s...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

S. Owen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,062 words

...In other cases, the dissatisfaction of young writers with traditional poetic forms led to what was often termed new poetry , essentially on a Eur. model (ranging from romanticism to the avant-gardes of the early 20th c.; see avant-garde poetics ). In Japan, China, South Asia, and the Islamic world, these versions of new poetry entered a tense relationship with the existing older poetry. The later represented cultural trad., a conservatism that, through the course of the 20th c., increasingly represented nationalism. The former began with its eyes fixed...

Knittelvers

Knittelvers   Reference library

D. H. Chisholm and K. Bowers

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...so klug, als wie zuvor. (Goethe, Urfaust ) In general, the metrical form of 19th-c. Knittelvers (as in J. F. Eichendorff , Heinrich Heine , Eduard Mörike , Friedrich Hebbel , Theodor Storm , Gottfried Keller , and Theodor Fontane ) and turn-of-the-century Knittelvers ( Detlev Liliencron , Richard Dehmel , Arno Holz , Arthur Schnitzler ) is quite similar to that written in the late 18th c. In the 1780s, however, Goethe’s contemporary Karl Arnold Kortum developed a new form of Knittelvers ( Die Jobsiade , 1784 , 1799 ) consisting of quatrains...

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