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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

tragedy

tragedy   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
642 words

... Mr Tulliver , ‘insignificant’ though they seem, ‘have their tragedy too’ ( MF 3.1). It is only, she comments in Middlemarch , because we are unable to hear the ‘roar … on the other side of silence’ that we do not feel the ‘tragedy which lies in the very fact of frequency’ ( MM 20). See also Aristotle ; classical literature ; theatre . FB Bonaparte, Felicia , Will and Destiny (1975). Easterling, P. E. , ‘ George Eliot and Greek Tragedy ’, George Eliot Review , 25 (1994). Guth, Barbara . ‘Philip: The Tragedy of The Mill on the Floss ’, Studies in...

Hennell, Sara Sophia

Hennell, Sara Sophia (1812–99)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,011 words

...of George Eliot, the seventh child born into a strict Unitarian family. Her father was a successful merchant who died when Sara was 4, and the children were brought up with a deep and lasting sense of their religion and a dedication to the Christian ideal. From about the age of 20 Sara was a governess, for a time in the family of John Bonham Carter , MP, and she first met Marian Evans at the *Brays' house Rosehill in July 1842 where she stayed regularly. Her sister Caroline (Cara), two years her junior, had married Bray in 1836 . Intellectual by nature...

Ireland and the Irish

Ireland and the Irish   Reference library

Leon Litvack

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
900 words

...success in Ireland … notwithstanding the Fenian alarms’ (to Frances Elliot , 20 March 1867 ). The third visit, when he read ‘Sikes and Nancy’ in Dublin and Belfast, passed off without incident, though he was aware of a growing nationalist sentiment, and observed, shortly before his departure, that ‘these are not times in which other powers would back our holding Ireland by force, unless we could make our claim good in proving fair and equal government’ (to W. F. de Cerjat , 4 January 1869 ). Despite this anxiety about the country's political...

circus

circus   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
875 words

...more from his acquaintance with Astley's than with a travelling show. Dickens knew the circus well from an early age, although he turned to Lemon for advice on ‘any slang terms among the tumblers and Circus-people, that you can call to mind’ when he began writing Hard Times ( 20 February 1854 ). ‘There is no other place which recalls so strongly our recollections of childhood than Astley's’, he wrote in ‘Astley's’ ( SB ). Kit and Barbara take their families there on their half-holiday: ‘Dear, dear, what a place it looked, that Astley's, with all the...

myth and symbol

myth and symbol   Reference library

Carol A. Bock

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,465 words

...critics to seek its source in myth and symbol. Myth criticism in literary studies developed in the mid‐20th century out of work in the fields of anthropology and psychology. In the 1970s, feminists adapted the approach to their readings of women's texts. It has been difficult, however, for myth criticism to withstand the charges that more recent critics, many of them feminists, have directed against universalizing approaches to the study of cultural forms, and current interpretations that consider the relationship of literature and myth are likely to...

criticism 1860–1940

criticism 1860–1940   Reference library

Carol A. Bock

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,701 words

...in their works, a fact lamented in the mid‐20th century by textual critics who eschewed the biographical approach to literary analysis ( see criticism from 1940 ). But identifying the ‘real‐life’ sources of characters, settings, and plots in the novels has been a productive and enduring form of research in Brontë studies, one given considerable impetus in the 1890s by the founding of the Haworth ‐based Brontë Society. Works published between 1860 and 1940 that make use of this kind of criticism include A. M. F. Robinson 's 1883 biography of Emily,...

philosophy

philosophy   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,895 words

...( L iv. 499). Because George Eliot's philosophical intelligence was integrated with her artist's intelligence, and because of the breadth of her knowledge, she anticipated philosophical problems that reached their full formulation long after her day. She looks forward to various 20th-century philosophers most particularly in her insistence on the indissoluble bond between ideas and things. This insistence permeates her novels, and is summarized succinctly in a review on ‘The *Future of German Philosophy ’ ( 1855 ), where she comments on an argument she is...

myth

myth   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
762 words

...been detached from its creed. As such it is the very embodiment of those universal ideas that, although they have not lost their eternal human significance, can no longer be conceived in their old theological forms. The fact that *Higher Criticism of the Bible, to which Eliot had herself made a significant contribution through her translations of D. F. *Strauss and Ludwig *Feuerbach , had subsumed Christianity into the category of myth rendered not only ancient religions but modern ones capable of being incorporated into what she describes in Middlemarch ...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

F. S. Schwarzbach

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,190 words

...they engendered a new social order that looks astonishingly similar to our own. Indeed, many of the dominant technologies of contemporary urban life developed in Dickens's London: modern forms of transport , including hansom cabs, buses, and railways—even, in 1863 , the underground railway; modern forms of communication, like the Penny Post and the telegraph; and modern forms of publishing , such as the cheap daily newspaper and the mass-circulation magazine (both of which Dickens helped to define and promote). And always there was the sheer weight of...

reputation, critical

reputation, critical   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,404 words

...her imagination. It was not until the next decade that the tide of her critical reputation clearly began to turn, with F. R. *Leavis 's articles in Scrutiny in 1945–6 , later to form part of his The Great Tradition ( 1948 ), starting the process of revaluation. He was the first to question the Jamesian criticism that her novels were moralized fables with an absence of free aesthetic life, arguing that a novelist's preoccupation with form was inseparable from the matter of moral vision and discrimination. He also challenged some of the commonplaces of Eliot...

publishing 1800–1860

publishing 1800–1860   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,072 words

...one of George Eliot 's novels, for she returned to the firm after Smith, Elder's expensive venture with her Romola in 1863 . Novel-publishing, rather in the doldrums in the early 1830s, was given a new lease of life by Dickens 's best-selling Pickwick Papers , published in 20 monthly parts in 1836–7 by Chapman and Hall. Part-publication, in Dickens's hands, became a fine art and a profitable commercial venture: Pickwick 's monthly circulation rose in a year from 500 to 40,000. The printers of Pickwick were Bradbury and Evans, who also had the...

Sketches by Boz

Sketches by Boz   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,276 words

...(1.5) that Dickens ‘decidedly underrated it’), Dickens retained an active interest in the sketch form, culminating in The uncommercial Traveller pieces written in the last decade of his life ( see short-story and sketch writer, Dickens as ). Inception and Composition Most of the stories and sketches collected in Sketches by Boz were first written as individual miscellaneous items for various periodical publications. Details can be found in Appendix F of volume 1 of the Pilgrim Letters ; in Appendix A of De Vries 1976 ; and in Journalism 1, pp....

Little Dorrit

Little Dorrit   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,050 words

...of 20 January 1856 ), he reminded Mrs Watson and M. Cerjat of visiting that place with them years previously ( see Switzerland ). ‘A new and serious piece’, he called the chapter; ‘how good it is!!!’ ( 5 October 1856 , 19 January 1857 ). From October 1856 he was embroiled in preparations to stage an amateur theatrical production of Wilkie Collins's play The frozen Deep , but work on the novel continued to proceed smoothly. He allowed that he was having to work hard ‘bringing a pretty large field of characters up to the winning post’ (to G. F....

calendar

calendar   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,157 words

...to be”’, old Midsummer Eve falling on 5 July rather than 23 June. A similar superstition forms the basis of an episode in The Woodlanders (20). A briefer reference to ‘Old Midsummer eves’ occurs in Jude the Obscure (3.8), while a personal adaptation of traditional beliefs may be found in the poem ‘On a Midsummer Eve’. The poem ‘I Rose Up as My Custom Is’ refers to All Souls' Day (2 November), more significant in the Roman Catholic than in the Anglican Church but (as F. B. Pinion has noted) ‘merged in Hardy with old pagan beliefs of Celtic origin which are...

Spinoza, Baruch

Spinoza, Baruch (1632–77)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,054 words

...Instead of a world of continuities and rationalization of the kinds found in Descartes and Locke and based on humanist models current since at least 1500 , Spinoza contemplates a world composed of multiple systems, and systems within systems, in what we might in the late 20th century call field equilibrium. For Spinoza, the fullest truths lie outside every system or representation, and the model of knowledge must allow for the ragged edges which human limitation will always impose upon any perception or understanding. It is not at all hard to see how...

charity and Dickens

charity and Dickens   Reference library

Norris Pope

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,521 words

...and Field Lane in Saffron Hill by agents of the London City Mission, itself formed in 1835 . In 1843 , both Dickens and Shaftesbury became interested in Ragged School labours through the work of the Field Lane School. In 1844 the Ragged School Union was formed to give coherence and direction to London Ragged Schools, and Shaftesbury became the society's first president. Evangelical and non-denominational in character, the RSU proved highly successful: from around 20 schools in 1845 , the society grew to include nearly 200 schools and refuges by ...

language

language   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,157 words

...uncertainty, no whims of idiom, no cumbrous forms, no fitful shimmer of many-hued significance, no hoary archaisms “familiar with forgotten years”’ and will ‘never express life , which is a great deal more than science’ ( Essays , 287–8). She is therefore deeply committed to presenting English rural life faithfully and convincingly by not giving in to the expectation of her ‘genteel’ middle-class urban readers ( see readership ). In her novels, she often consciously highlights local characteristics of speech forms against the norm of an assumed standardized...

poetry

poetry   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
5,197 words

...and late-Victorian. He carried this vision into the 20th century, when he continued to write poems until 1928 , in his 87th year. Hardy's poetic vision of loss is almost exhilarating in its comprehensiveness and its ingenious imbedding in multiple poetic forms. From the despair of the country girl to the self-questioning of the philosopher, Hardy develops a grammar of loss in multiple forms, from sonnet to ballad, from personal lyric to dramatic monologue and epic drama. The coherence of poetic forms seems itself called into question, as the poetics of...

criticism, modern

criticism, modern   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
8,065 words

...The Critical Difference ( 1980 ), 5). The leading American practitioner of deconstructive criticism, J. Hillis Miller , showed how this approach to texts could be applied to George Eliot's fiction. Remarks such as the following from her *‘Notes on Form in Art’ that ‘form is unlikeness … every difference is form’ ( Essays , 422–3) and the narrator's comment in The Mill on the Floss that Aristotle should have lamented ‘that intelligence so rarely shows itself in speech without metaphor—that we can seldom declare what a thing is, except by saying it is...

Hard Times

Hard Times   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,971 words

...Words, that I am at present up to my eyes in one’, he wrote (to Emile de la Rue , 9 March 1854 ). The strategy was successful; whereas the March 1854 profits sank even lower, to £393 7s 2d, the September 1854 net receipts rose by 237 per cent ( Patten 1978 , p. 246). On 20 January Dickens sent a list of fourteen possible titles, including Hard Times , for the story to Forster , and three days later he was under way. On 25 January he asked his assistant editor at Household Words , W. H. wills , to provide him with the Education Board's questions...

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