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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

adventure stories

adventure stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,199 words

...aimed at working-class readers, about such improbable heroes as Wilson the Wonder Athlete . During the late 19th and early 20th cents., boys’ adventure papers in Britain also made much use of the type of adventure story pioneered by R. L. Stevenson in Treasure Island ( 1883 ) and by Rider Haggard in King Solomon’s Mines ( 1885 ), and of the detective story and the Jules Verne style of science fiction tale. For much of the 20th cent. the tendency was for the ‘serious’ adventure story for children to draw less on the Ballantyne–Henty tradition than...

Locke, John

Locke, John   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
544 words

... he published Some Thoughts concerning Education , the work that most obviously marks his contribution to the development of children's literature. The book went through several editions in his lifetime; Locke's influence can be compared to that of child development gurus of the 20th century such as Benjamin Spock and Penelope Leach . His influence lasted well into the 19th century as evidenced by an 1886 entry in the Journals of Thomas Cobden-Sanderson . With reference to his infant son he records, “Our anxiety for his future makes us careful of...

Trimmer, Sarah

Trimmer, Sarah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
530 words

...new edition including the word “robins” in the title appeared in 1818 . It was followed by various retold and abridged editions that gradually eliminated the story line concerning the Benson family. New editions of The History of the Robins appeared until the beginning of the 20th century . A pioneer of animal fantasy stories, the book remained in print until around 1950 . Meanwhile, The Guardian of Education was published twenty-eight times in five years, encompassing more than 2,300 pages. Although its main subject was educational theory, there were...

Aesop

Aesop   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
808 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Aesop continued to attract 20th-century illustrators. Percy J. Billingshurst made drawings for L'Estrange's version in 1910 . Arthur Rackham illustrated a new translation by V. S. Vernon Jones ( 1912 ). J. J. Grandville 's woodcuts for an 1838 edition of Jean de La Fontaine 's fables were used for a 1966 Aesop. Arthur Geisert illustrated Barbara Bader 's Aesop and Company with etchings in a style evocative of the 17th century but set in an Illinois background. Aesop has often been presented in picture book form—as in Brian Wildsmith 's ...

school stories

school stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,415 words

...was almost a step backwards with its excessive concentration on the morals of its hero; but the same author, F. W. Farrar , wrote a livelier account of public school life in St Winifred’s , or, the World of School ( 1862 ). Though other school novels were published during the 1860s and 1870s, such as Schoolboy Honour ( 1861 ) by the Revd H. C. Adams and Oudendale ( 1865 ) by Ascott R. Hope , nothing further of note appeared until the 1880s. F. Anstey ’s Vice Versa ( 1882 ) was an outstanding comic fantasy about the tribulations of school. The year...

Books of Instruction

Books of Instruction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,065 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with moving images, as a CD-ROM. The internet expanded the idea of the book of instruction even farther. Overall, the changes in books of instruction over the centuries demonstrate a shift from monologic forms, that is, information conveyed by an adult in the know to a child who is assumed to be a “blank slate,” to a more dialogic and interactive form—encouraging discovery and interaction. Lissa Paul Fritzer, Penelope . Jane Austen and Eighteenth-Century Courtesy Books . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997. Meek, Margaret . Information and Book Learning ....

Alice Imitations

Alice Imitations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,173 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Illustration by John Rae in New Adventures of Alice (Chicago: P. F. Volland, c. 1917). Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library The term “ Alice imitations” has come into use by children's literature and Carroll scholars to describe pastiches, parodies, and continuations of the Alice books, as well as works that directly imitate the novels' structures, symbols, and character-types. So many of these texts were produced in late 19th and early 20th centuries that “books of the Alice type” could be seen as...

Adventure Books

Adventure Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,321 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Spielberg ’s Raiders of the Lost Ark ( 1981 ), together with the appetite for fantasy game books and dramatic computer games, suggests that the genre will continue to survive in some form or other. Critical discussion of the adventure story, which was inclined to be largely descriptive mainly in terms of character and exciting incidents, has mushroomed since the late 20th century . The debate has tended to concentrate on three main areas. First, the British adventure story in particular has been investigated in terms of its political and ideological...

Series Books

Series Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,187 words

...Toward the end of the 20th century , publishers' format series became immensely popular. They consist of works, often written by a syndicate of authors, bound together by theme, characters or genre, and marketed as a recognizable commodity. Format series may aspire to the conditions of either the progressive or the successive series. They are not, however, a recent phenomenon: in the United States, the Bobbsey Twins were created by Edward Stratemeyer in 1904 , and his syndicate released the first of the Hardy Boys series by “F. W. Dixon” in 1927 . ...

School Stories

School Stories   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a second, very different, school story the following year, F. W. Farrar ’s Eric ; or , Little by Little , demonstrated the flexibility of the genre; while Hughes portrayed a muscular Christian ideal, Eric perpetuated the more sentimental approach, and for this reason has worn less well. From this point on, Robert Kirkpatrick explains, the boys’ school story took three paths: the “penny dreadful” melodrama (stories and serials in story papers and magazines, some later published in book form); the evangelical school story put out by religious...

Nonfiction

Nonfiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
4,020 words

...'s article in the February 1976 issue of Horn Book , “Where Do All the Prizes Go? The Case for Nonfiction.” In this much-reprinted and frequently quoted essay, Meltzer argued that the best of nonfiction involves “imagination, invention, selection, language and form” just as any other form of literature does, and that it should be judged accordingly. Beyond Fact ( 1982 ), edited by Jo Carr , is an important collection of essays on various aspects of nonfiction, including science, history, biography, and areas of controversy. It includes contributions...

Water-Babies, The

Water-Babies, The (1863)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,266 words

...of its detractors. Tom himself undergoes a process of evolution in becoming a water-baby and Kinsley’s reference in the text to the ‘Hippopotamus’ in the brains of the ‘Doasyoulikes’ echoes contemporary debate on the ‘Hippocampus question’ in scientific circles. Most 20th-cent. critics of children’s fiction deplored the didacticism of The Water-Babies , regarding it as a flawed masterpiece because Kingsley could not resist the urge to preach. Certainly its didactic nature has meant that the book has dated far more than the writings of Lewis...

animal stories

animal stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,494 words

...often with an element of the fantastical, as the animals generally have voices, speaking among themselves if not to people. This is evidenced in the work of Dick King-Smith , the talking animals of E. B. White, and popular packaged series Animal Ark towards the end of the 20th cent. Newer books regularly have a conservational slant, such as the realistic animal stories of scientists Nicola Davies and Gill Lewis in the UK, or in the US, Katherine Applegate ’s Newbery Medal -winning The One and Only Ivan ( 2013 ), written from the perspective of a...

Internet

Internet   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,057 words

...soulmates on the seemingly ubiquitous Internet dating sites like Match.com or Lavalife.com. In fact, online interaction offers a kind of anonymity that allows users to actively shape their subjectivity into new forms, potentially radically different from their F2F (Face-to-Face) selves. Second, taking advantage of the Internet requires new forms of technological literacy and visual rhetoric. Users must not only be able to use the specialized software required by their virtual environment (consider the complexity of an “icon” on a piece of software); they...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,044 words
Illustration(s):
2

...career, a father's unemployment, alcoholism and other forms of dependence, and disability, sickness, and death (for example, Peter Härtling 's Oma [Grandma], 1975 , and Fränze [Francie], 1989 ). The child's inner life, dreams, and fears are also taken seriously (for example, Peter Härtling's Ben liebt Anna [ Ben Loves Anna] , 1979 , and Gudrun Mebs 's Das Sonntagskind [Sunday's Child], 1983 ). The new narrative children's literature of the late 20th and early 21st centuries is linked in form and style with the modern novel, assuming the complex...

fairy stories

fairy stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,479 words

...de la Force, and Mme de Murat, and with a few men, such as the Chevalier de Mailly, joining them in print. In 1697 a Paris theatre showed a burlesque F ées, ou Contes de ma mère l’Oye. By 1699 volumes of fairy tales in the fashionable style were beginning to be published in the provinces, and the Abbé de Villiers was impelled to complain about the cult in a series of Entretiens sur les contes de f ées , castigating most of them as empty trifles lapped up by women. The fashion was, in fact, already beginning to wane. A few new titles appeared, from...

Historical Fiction

Historical Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from The Guns of Bull Run: A Story of the Civil War's Eve , 1914 , to Shades of Appomattox: A Story of the Civil War's Close , 1916 ); and John Bennett , whose Master Skylark: A Story of Shakespeare's Time ( 1897 ) was much admired at the turn of the 20th century . The 20th Century Of the 20th-century specialists in historical fiction the individual most frequently mentioned as a leading practitioner is Rosemary Sutcliff . As had Scott and Stevenson, Sutcliff published a novel about the Jacobites, Bonnie Dundee ( 1983 ), and the casts of her...

Dickens, Charles

Dickens, Charles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

...son, who allowed it to be published in 1934 . The stress is on parables and works of healing and charity. Dickens's religious beliefs were often contradictory and full of prejudice, but for all that he was a staunch Christian. There were many retellings of Dickens's novels in the 20th century , some with distinguished artwork, such as Edward Ardizzone 's ( 1959 ) and Faith Jaques 's ( 1971 ) illustrations for David Copperfield . Samuel McChord Crother 's The Children of Dickens ( 1925 ), illustrated by Jessie Wilcox Smith , included minor characters as...

Geography and Travel Books

Geography and Travel Books   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,334 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Stephens were both editors of The Youth's Companion ); the lively Family Flight books by Edward Everett Hale and his sister Susan Hale; and Elizabeth Champney 's Vassar Girls and Witch Winnie series. The frame of a fictionalized geography book was revived in the 20th century with Geoffrey Trease 's Young Traveller series. Finally, picture books expand modern boundaries for young readers. Picture books by Holling C. Holling , Mitsumasa Anno , Roxie Munro , Thomas Locker , and Jeannie Baker represent a variety of fiction and...

magazines

magazines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,358 words

...but remarkable Riverside Magazine for Young People ( 1867–70 ), and in 1873 was founded St Nicholas , which in the first 30 years of its existence published many notable works of children’s fiction. Among its competitors were Harper’s Young People and Wide Awake . The early 20th cent. in England was notable for the proliferation of the Harmsworth boys’ and girls’ story papers. New titles which were introduced by Harmsworth’s Amalgamated Press before the First World War included Gem ( 1907 ) and Magnet ( 1908 ), two school story magazines which...

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