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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

trivium

trivium  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
An introductory course at a medieval university involving the study of grammar, rhetoric, and logic; with the quadrivium, forming the seven liberal arts. The word comes from Latin, and means ...
morphophoneme

morphophoneme   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
189 words

...Unit posited in the mid-20th century to account for alternations in morphology which are recurrent but not automatic . E.g. knives or loaves has a [v] ([nʌɪv], [ləʊv]) where knife or loaf has an [f]. The alternation is recurrent, since it is found in more than one word. But it is not automatic, since it is not found e.g. in oaf and oafs , both of which have [f], or in hive and hives , both of which have [v]. To account for it, forms such as knife and loaf were said to end in a morphophoneme ‘F’, identical to [f] except that, when the...

Meso-American Languages

Meso-American Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a noun root and possessive pronominal affixes, as in Kaqchikel (Mayan) ru-pan ‘in it’, containing ru - ‘his, her, its’ + pan ‘stomach’ (c) Vigesimal numeral systems, with numbers composed morphologically of combinations of twenty: 30 = 20 + 10, 40 = 2 × 20, 50 = 2 × 20 + 10,100 = 5 × 20, 400 = 20 × 20 (d) Absence of verb-final word order—although MA is surrounded by S[ubject] O[bject] V[erb] languages, all languages in the area have VOS, VSO, or SVO order (e) An extensive list of semantic loan translations, e.g. ‘boa’ = ‘deer-snake’, ‘egg’ =...

Pashto

Pashto   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,638 words
Illustration(s):
4

...sg.f ‘The man saw the woman.’ Only the enclitic pronouns disturb this pattern—since, like all enclitics, they must attach in a fixed order to the first syntagm in a clause (unless a relative clause intervenes): (20) Dā X̌ə́ja xo ba ye nə́ lidəla . this woman but habit he. agt not seen ‘But he used not to see this woman.’ Word order and concord are rigid. Even adjectives used adverbially, and nouns which form denominative verbs, are declined adjectivally: (21a) KiX̌tə́y ye klə́ka wə́-niwəla . boat(f.) he. agt firm(f.) pf -seized.3. sg.f ‘He...

Lexical-Functional Grammar

Lexical-Functional Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,093 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in traditional terms. The general form of an f-structure is illustrated by the attribute-value matrix in Figure 1, which is a possible f-structure for ex. (1). Figure 1. Attributive-value Matrix for ‘John expected Henry to leave .’ (1) John expects Henry to leave The lexical entry in (2) contains the information for the base form expect necessary for the analysis of (1): (2) expect: V (↑ pred ) = ‘expect <(↑ subj ) (↑ xcomp )>   (↑ obj )'   (↑ obj ) = (↑ xcomp subj ) This entry defines important properties of the f-structure: the functions in the ...

Typography

Typography   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,108 words
Illustration(s):
3

...is the marked form, signifying a basic differentiation from the roman—the unmarked form, which emerges as the archigraph when the opposition is neutralized. 5.8. Normal vs. bold The opposition between normal and bold weight arose in the mid-19th century. It is regulated in publishing, though not as strongly as the roman/italic opposition. The bold weight is the marked form, signifying differentiation with emphasis. 5.9. Seriffed vs. sans serif The opposition between seriffed and sans serif forms (see Figure 3) began to appear within texts in the 20th century and...

Bulgarian

Bulgarian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,615 words

...are confirmative forms, generally used to mark witnessed events. The perfect forms are basically non-confirmative; they are widely used to mark non-witnessed events, either reported or inferred. With the meaning ‘reported’, the 3rd person auxiliaries e, sa ‘be’ are often dropped. 6. Syntax Like other Balkan languages, Bulgarian replaces the infinitive constructions of Western European and most other Slavic languages with an analytic conjunctive; this consists of the particle da followed by a finite form of the verb, e.g.: (20) Ískam da govórja...

Telugu

Telugu   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,301 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as well as some commentaries and chronicles, reflected the spoken form. The divergence was found both in phonology and in grammar. M[odern] S[tandard] T[elugu] is traceable to the spoken variety. Devotional poetry dating from the 15th century, as well as prose inscriptions, provides historical links to the modern language. Modern prose writings in the form of essays, fiction, plays, criticism, etc. began mainly in the 19th century, under the influence of English. At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a prolonged battle between the classicists, who...

Igbo

Igbo   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,409 words

...the Ịjọ languages to the south. These have contributed cultural loanwords, in particular. In the 20th century, English has become an important source of loans. The first orthography for Igbo was developed in the mid-19th century by the Anglican missionaries S. A. Crowther and J. F. Schön; it distinguished the consonants adequately, but used only six letters to represent the eight vowel phonemes. In the 1930s, a “New” orthography was introduced by Ida Ward and R. F. G. Adams; it distinguished all eight vowel phonemes, but wrote them with unfamiliar phonetic...

Generative Morphology

Generative Morphology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
868 words

...1957 used “morphophonemic” rules to describe the formation of the past tense of verbs, and Lees 1960 proposed that compounds were formed by transformational rules. Morphology was first accorded a specific role in generative grammar by Chomsky 1970 ; within this framework, Halle 1973 proposed the first explicit model of generative morphology. This model is morpheme-based; it consists of a list of morphemes, a set of W[ord] F[ormation] R[ule]s , a Filter , and a Dictionary of existing words. The whole model is supposed to work inside the lexical...

Wolof

Wolof   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
2

...), linked to the grammaticalization of focus in the verb. Wolof is usually described as having 35 phonemes (20 consonants, 8 short and 7 long vowels), without counting geminate and prenasalized consonants (see Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. Vowel Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Table 2. Consonant Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Labial Dental (Alveolar) Palatal Velar Uvular Stops p t e k q b d j g Nasals m n ñ η Fricatives f s x Trills r Laterals l Semivowels y w In final position, stops have special realizations (implosive for...

Anaphora

Anaphora   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,092 words

...the form no F, the F, exactly one F, exactly two Fs , etc.; but the resulting formulas obscure the relationship between the syntactic structure of a sentence and its logical form. For example, if we agree with Russell that The F is G is true if and only if all Fs are Gs and there is exactly one F, then the most perspicuous rendering of the logical form of this sentence is: (5) (∃ x )(F x &(∀ y )(F y⊃y = x )&G x ). (b) A more serious problem is that there are sentences which provably cannot be represented within first-order logic, e.g. those of the form ...

Reduplication

Reduplication   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
720 words

... Reduplication in the Chadic languages: A study of form and function . Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Broselow, Ellen , and John McCarthy . 1983. A theory of internal reduplication . Linguistic Review 3.25–88. Dressler, Wolfgang U. 1968. Studien zur verbalen Pluralität . Graz: Böhlau. Harrison, S. P. 1973. Reduplication in Micronesian languages . Oceanic Linguistics 12.407–454. Kitagawa, Yoshihisa . 1987. Redoing reduplication: A preliminary sketch. In Discontinuous constituency (Syntax and semantics, 20), edited by Geoffrey J. Huck and Almerindo R....

Ritual Language

Ritual Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,492 words

...individual personality (f) The ritual speaker's verbal disclaimer of responsibility for the words uttered, or for skill in speaking them (g) The ritual speaker's presentation of self as a mere channel or medium—a transmitter of words from another source (h) Highlighted quotation, often from earlier speech events taken as precedents (i) Objectification of ritual speech as an entity that is constant through time (j) Belief in the permanence and repeatability of the ritual text, in functionally equivalent or even verbatim form (k) Attenuation of the...

Agrammatism

Agrammatism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,384 words

...characterized by replacements of items. Late 20th century neurolinguists have become uncomfortable with such a dichotomy (Heeschen 1985 ), especially considering the following facts: (i) Both omissions and substitutions may be observed in a single agrammatic patient, and may systematically involve the same grammatical morphemes. (ii) Language-specific structural constraints sometimes force the patient to produce substitutions rather than omissions, e.g. in Hebrew. The study of agrammatism, at the end of the 20th century, is a prototypical example of...

Czech and Slovak

Czech and Slovak   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,592 words

...also a semi-artificial creation, codified by L'udovít Štúr in the 1840s, with later refinements. However, it is at least based on a modern form (Central Slovak, with some West Slovak features), and thus is in a sense less conservative than Czech. An earlier attempt by Anton Bernolák to codify Slovak, using a West Slovak dialect as the basis, failed to win general acceptance. An unhappy attempt at the beginning of the 20th century to create an additional language based on Eastern Slovak, and called “Slovjak,” was short-lived. The lexicon has a common core,...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...person form of the copula (‘he/she/it is’) is always omitted. The numeral system of Quechua is decimal. It comprises terms for the numbers 1 to 10, 100, and 1,000. LANGUAGE LIST Inga: also called Highland Inga. 14,000 speakers in Colombia and Venezuela. In Colombia: 10,000 speakers. Dialects are Santiago Inga, San Andrés Inga, Aponte Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Highland Quichua of Ecuador. Closest to Jungle Inga. Aponte Inga may need separate literature. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 0%, 1 10%, 2 10%, 3 20%, 4 40%, 5 20%. In...

Computational Phonology

Computational Phonology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,145 words

...Press. Bird, S. , ed. 1994. Computational linguistics 20.3: special issue on computational phonology . Bird, S. 1995. Computational phonology: A constraint-based approach . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bobrow, D. G. , and J. B. Fraser . 1968. A phonological rule tester . Communications of the ACM 11.766–772. Chomsky, Noam , and Morris Halle . 1968. The Sound pattern of English . New York: Harper and Row. Coleman, J. S. 1997. Phonological representations—their names, forms and powers . Cambridge University Press. Ellison, T. M. 1992....

Arabic

Arabic   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,849 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... All these plural forms are inflected like singular nouns. 6. Personal pronouns There are two sets of personal pronouns: independent ones, and bound forms suffixed to nouns, particles, and verbs. The suffixed pronouns, shown in Table 4 (except - nī 1sg.), have a possessive function when combined with nouns. Table 4. Arabic Pronominal Forms Independent Forms Suffixal Forms 1sg. ˀ anā - ī /- nī 1pl. naḥnu - nā 2sg. m. ˀ anta - ka f. ˀ anti - ki 2du. ˀ antumā - kumā 2pl. m. ˀ antum - kum f. ˀ antunna - kunna 3sg. m. huwa - hŭ/-hĭ f. hiya - hā 3du. humā -...

Fula

Fula   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,220 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the three categories involved (voiceless consonants are not prenasalized). Table 2. Typical Initial Consonant Alternation in Fula Continuant Plosive Nasal f p p s c c h k k r d nd w (before i e and some a o u ) b mb w (otherwise before a o u ) g ŋg y (before i e ) g ŋg y (before a o u ) j nj When a verbal root begins with any consonant in the C or P category in Table 2, the plural verbal form takes the corresponding N-category initial: (1) o haɓii, ɓe kaɓii ‘he/they fought’ (2) o remii, ɓe ndemii ‘he/they farmed’ (3) o woyii, ɓe mboyii ...

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