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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Black Church

Black Church  

Apart from the ancient Churches of Nubia and Ethiopia, Black Churches originated in the 18th cent. among the descendants of African slaves in the United States of America. From the 1740s, evangelical ...
Social Gospel

Social Gospel  

The most conspicuous movement representing the social aspects of Christianity in American and Canadian Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th cents. Washington Gladden (1836–1918), a ...
Newfoundland National Government

Newfoundland National Government   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
231 words

...a national government that contained a new Ministry of Militia to replace the npa . From January 1918 the government was led by W. F. Lloyd . It addressed shipping and food-supply problems, and legislated conscription, which was widely unpopular outside St John's. Income and profits taxes were imposed for the first time. By the spring of 1919 old political antagonisms were beginning to surface, and on 20 May the National Government collapsed when, in a bizarre scene, Lloyd seconded a motion of no confidence in his own administration. In the...

Numerical Notation

Numerical Notation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,609 words
Illustration(s):
1

...although sometimes transcribed as 20 or 0, respectively, are not numerals. Throughout Mesoamerica, numerals feature prominently in the proper names of both deities and historical figures. Many such names result from the widespread custom of naming individuals after their day of birth. Numerical usage is also found in chronological records but details vary considerably from region to region. At the earliest horizon, the Zapotec of Monte Albán, employed an enumeration of trecenas , the 20 consecutive 13-day groups that form the 260-day calendar; they may also...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,402 words

...tended to support the Republican Party. There were, and are, of course, significant individual exceptions to this important general rule. Examples include Woodrow Wilson , the Democrat who was president 1912–20 , and Adlai E. Stevenson I , Democratic vice‐president 1892–6 . But the political division could take extreme forms. The list of frequently sanguinary ‘Orange and Green’ riots in New York city stretches from the 1820s to the 1870s. There is evidence that those who led the Scots Irish movement of the late 19th century tried to enlist...

Methodism

Methodism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
424 words

...Protestant denomination with a membership concentrated in the north of the country. In the 20th century Methodism's distinctive emphasis on itinerant preaching and class meetings has been diluted, as has its conversionist zeal. Such developments have helped promote greater ecumenical co‐operation with other churches without adding much to its popular appeal. Hempton, D. , The Religion of the People: Methodism and Popular Religion c.1750–1900 (1996) Jeffery, F. , Irish Methodism: An Historical Account of its Traditions, Theology and Influence (1964)...

ultramontanism

ultramontanism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
461 words

...le Parti, le Grand Homme , a pamphlet published in 1882 under the pseudonym Castor ( Senator F. X. A. Trudel and the priest Alphonse Villeneuve ), expressed their profound alienation. Although individual Castors would exert influence in forming the Parti national after Riel's hanging in 1885 and in the Manitoba schools question, the movement was already a spent force. Yet, its legacy of independent journalism and political action, represented in the 20th century by Henri Bourassa , would remain. Roberto...

Tulum

Tulum   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,248 words

...Roo, situated at 87.4°W, 20.2°N, about 125 kilometers (80 miles) south-southwest of Cancún. Settled about 1200 ce , Tulum is closely linked to the Classic-period site of Tancah, 5 kilometers (3.5 miles) to the north. Tulum flourished at least until the arrival of the Spaniards in the early sixteenth century, who saw its temples from their ships. Juan de Grijalva in 1518 no doubt meant Tulum when he reported, “We have seen a town more grand than Seville.” Central Tulum is heavily fortified against land approaches by 6-meter (20-foot) thick masonry walls,...

Temple Complexes

Temple Complexes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,688 words

...1972. Townsend, Richard F. “Pyramid and Sacred Mountain.” In Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics , edited by Anthony Aveni and Gary Urton, pp. 37–62. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 385. New York, 1982. Townsend, Richard F. “Coronation at Tenochtitlan.” In The Aztec Templo Mayor , edited by Elizabeth H. Boone , pp. 371–410. Washington, D.C., 1987. Townsend, Richard F. “The Renewal of Nature at the Temple of Tlaloc.” In The Ancient Americas: Art from Sacred Landscapes , edited by Richard F. Townsend , pp. 170–185....

Aboriginal nomenclature

Aboriginal nomenclature   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
662 words

...of the Australian Encyclopaedia gave aboriginal as the singular of aborigines . The Commonwealth government's Style Manual (3rd edn, 1978) preferred Aboriginal for the singular noun and the adjective, but accepted as the plural form of the noun both Aboriginals and Aborigines . Clearly, in the passage of 20 years, the political mobilisations of indigenous Australians earned them an upper-case ‘A’. Since the people of the Torres Strait began, in the early 1970s, to articulate their distinct claims as an indigenous people, there has been good...

Tombs

Tombs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,364 words

...are at Olmec sites, such as La Venta , where a tomb known as the Basalt Column Tomb was formed with long columns of basalt stood next to one another, and the space so created was covered with basalt columns laid horizontally. Other early tombs, recently found at sites in West Mexico, have been dated to the first few decades of the first century ce . The tombs in this area are called “shaft tombs” because vertical shafts, dug into soil or soft stone as deep as 20 meters (60 feet), lead down to large rooms containing human remains and elaborate grave goods....

Civil Rights Act (1964)

Civil Rights Act (1964)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,238 words

...at 42 U.S.C. § 2000 (2004). Garza v. County of Los Angeles , 918 F.2d 763 (9th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1028 (1991). Hopwood v. State of Texas , 78 F.3d 932, cert. denied, 518 U.S. 1033 (1996). Regents of California v. Bakke , 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools , 499 F.2d 1147 (1974). Soria v. Oxnard School District Board of Trustees , C.D. Cal. 1974, 396 F. Supp. 539 (1974). Thornburg v. Gingles , 478 U.S. 30 (1986). Villanueva v. Carere , 83 F.3d 481 (1996), 85 F.3d 481 (1996). secondary works Cameron, Christopher David Ruiz ....

bardic poetry

bardic poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
589 words

...consist of eulogies to be recited at banquets hosted by the patrons, elegies to grace their funerals or commemorative feasts, epithalamiums for weddings, poems to celebrate newly built palaces or churches, and occasionally inauguration poems or incitements to battle. A further 20 per cent or so are poems on religious subjects, though composed by the same professional bards who were responsible for the secular eulogies. The remaining compositions consist of Tudor and Jacobean poems of courtly love, in the style of contemporary English verse though in bardic...

Free thought

Free thought   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
904 words

...The iconoclastic Anderson's University Freethought Society lasted from 1930 to 1951 , when he formed the Libertarian Society. A more liberal approach was kept alive by Public Questions Societies; ‘halfway houses’, such as Unitarianism; and, as civil liberties and censorship became increasingly problematic in the interwar years, by Melbourne historian Brian Fitzpatrick . Rationalism was largely superseded in the early 1960s by humanist societies, which formed first in Sydney following scandal surrounding the Anglican archbishop. (In Brisbane the...

local government

local government   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
862 words

...expedient under an 1872 act, the wording of which is reminiscent of the Baldwin act. Economic and demographic trends of the later 20th century have put municipalities under severe stress: rural entities from loss of population and tax base; larger urban ones from the sheer rapidity of their growth and the consequent pressure on their infrastructures. By 2000 , drastic restructuring of local government had become endemic. C. F. J....

printmaking

printmaking   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
731 words

...a member of the Society of Wood Engravers in 1924 . In 1932 and 1939 she presented the Belfast Museum with her fine collection of contemporary wood engravings before emigrating to New Zealand. John F. Hunter ( 1893–1951 ) and E. M. O'Rorke Dickey ( 1894–1977 ), while important art educators, were masters of woodcut and wood engraving. Many 20th‐century painters or sculptors also made prints, including the southerners Harry Kernoff , Louis le Brocquy , Cecil King , Micheal Farrell , Patrick Hickey , Anne Yeats , John Behan , and Robert...

Caracol

Caracol   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,629 words

...field seasons. Chase, Arlen F. , and Diane Z. Chase . “ More than Kin and King: Centralized Political Organization among the Late Classic Maya. ” Current Anthropology 37 (1996), 803–810. Counters the view that Maya political units comprised “segmentary” states and documents that Caracol was at the heart of a “unitary” state. Chase, Arlen F. , and Diane Z. Chase . “ Scale and Intensity in Classic Period Maya Agriculture: Terracing and Settlement at the ‘Garden City’ of Caracol, Belize. ” Culture and Agriculture 20 (1998), 60–77. Presents detailed...

Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War   Reference library

David F. Trask

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
927 words

...troops who fought in the Philippines, around 4,000 were killed. An estimated 20,000 Filipino independence fighters died, and civilian casualties were heavy as well. A U.S. Senate committee in 1902 heard testimony of burned villages and Filipino prisoners killed or tortured. The war that began as a humanitarian crusade on behalf of Cuban independence fostered an imperial spirit that brought the United States a small empire. In the war's aftermath, the Anti-imperialist League formed, and Americans debated the relationship between republicanism and empire....

photography

photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,904 words

...and accurately in text-compatible form. This new form of pictorial illustration, first in black-and-white and later in colour, added veracity and immediacy to published images, and was enlisted to nurture a new sense of Canadian nationhood. The strong tradition of photo-journalism, which began with photographs of the aftermath of the Great Western Railway disaster at the Desjardins Canal in March 1857 , continued in the work of staff photographers supplying images to major newspaper and wire service agencies throughout the 20th century. Those who have achieved...

Ngendandumwe, Pierre

Ngendandumwe, Pierre (1932)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
708 words

...of another Hutu, Joseph Bamina, on 20 January did not stop the spiral of antagonism. The year 1965 clearly represents a decisive break, with political instability opening the way to a veritable racialization of Burundian political life. [ see also Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge ; and Rwagasore, Louis . ] bibliography Interview with Madame Nyanjwenge , widow of Pierre Ngendandumwe, Bujumbura, 10 February 2010. Chrétien, J. P. , Burundi. Histoire retrouvée . Paris: Karthala, 1993. Chrétien, J. P. , and Dupaquier J. F. Burundi 1972. Au bord des génocides ....

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