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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...anonymously, or under a humorous pseudonym—recognized that the viewers of painting in the capital appreciated the Academy shows not only as opportunities to exercise artistic refinement but also as commercialized forms of urban entertainment. Consequently, daily and weekly reviews of the exhibition in *newspapers and journals tended to take the form of snappy, gossipy, and frequently scathing responses to the painters and paintings on view. Rather than offering extended interrogations of individual paintings, journalistic art criticism normally mimicked the...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...public behaviour with the manners of reformed gentlemen. Though eighteenth-century religion may have contributed to the modification of the public manners of men, the historian John Pocock believes that the new mobile forms of property entailed the ‘construction of a new image of social personality’, based ‘upon the exchange of forms of mobile property and upon modes of consciousness suited to a world of moving objects’. In the view of contemporaries, this new image was brought about by the multiplying ‘encounters with things and persons’, evoking...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Lectures on Architecture (1821) , New York, 1971; Kindler, R. , ‘ Periodical Criticism, 1815–40: Originality in Architecture ’, Architectural History , 17 (1974), 22–37; Markus, T. A. , ed., Order in Space and Society: Architectural Form and Its Context in the Scottish Enlightenment , Edinburgh, 1982; Schinkel, K. F. , ‘ The English Journey ’: Journal of a Visit to France and Britain in 1826 , ed. D. Bindman & G. Riemann , New Haven, Conn., 1993; Soane, J. , Lectures on Architecture , ed. A. T. Bolton , London, 1929; Summerson, J. , ...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the mass of people, as it would a generation later [ see London *keyboards ]. Most aspects of musical life which we loosely associate with nineteenth-century Britain were similarly incipient or underdeveloped. Amateur choral societies, which began to flourish in most towns of 20,000 people or more by mid-century, were in 1830 thin on the ground and predominantly male: the Concert of Ancient Music, for example, still had a professional choir with boy trebles. Similarly the entirely male brass band ‘movement’ had scarcely begun [ see *military bands ]....

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von (1741–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
700 words

...form of government that combined aspects of monarchism with republican democracy, just as he supported the death penalty for extraordinary crimes. Typically, Hippel dared to criticize the French Revolution of 1789 for failing to be consistently progressive. [See also Kant, Immanuel and Wolff, Christian .] Works by Hippel Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von . On Improving the Status of Women . Translated and introduced by Timothy F. Sellner . Detroit, 1979. Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von . On Marriage . Translated and introduced by Timothy F. Sellner ....

Lamy, Bernard

Lamy, Bernard (1640–1715)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
683 words

...to form the honnête homme , the gentleman of the seventeenth century, cultivated but not a pedant, “with a just mind and upright heart.” This message continued to reverberate in the schools and pedagogical writings of the century of the Enlightenment. [See also Apologetics ; Bible ; Cartesianism ; Malebranche, Nicolas ; Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat ; Oratorians ; and Rousseau, Jean-Jacques .] Girbal, François . Bernard Lamy (1640–1715), bio-bibliographie . Paris, 1964. Lamy, Bernard . Entretiens sur les sciences . Critical edition by F....

Noodt, Gerard

Noodt, Gerard (1647–1725)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,232 words

...Margreet . Gerard Noodt. In Juristen: ein biographisches Lexikon von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert , edited by M. Stolleis . Munich, 1995. Ahsmann, Margreet , and Robert Feenstra . Bibliografie van hoogleraren in de rechten aan de Leidse universiteit tot 1811 . Amsterdam, 1984. Bibliography of Noodt's works, 419–480; additions in M. Ahsmann, Bibliografie van hoogleraren in de rechten aan de Utrechts universiteit tot 1811 (Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 41f. Bergh, Govaert C. J. J. Van Den . Die holländische elegante Schule: Ein Beitrag zur...

Revolutionary Cults

Revolutionary Cults   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,096 words

...to establish a revolutionary religion. The elite republicans, who were deists, clearly understood the need to borrow from Christianity the principles and forms of belief in order to arouse the masses to spiritual and ritual commitment to the Revolution. The void left by the disappearance of Catholicism could not be filled without this transfer of sacredness. This made the revolutionary religion a veritable form of worship, though one composed of somewhat heterogeneous elements: the dedication of the churches to Reason, offerings of silver, abjurations by...

Health and Disease

Health and Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,866 words

...in preparing and circulating materials to enlighten the populace on matters of health and hygiene. Sometimes this instruction took the form of a “catechism of health,” such as that of Bernard Faust , which was introduced into schools in Hesse. Just as frequently, guidance appeared in periodicals penned specially for the lower classes or insinuated itself into older folk literature such as almanacs and prognosticons. These forms of popular medical material were always modest in their ambitions and cautious in their dictums. They usually prescribed simple dietary...

Jesuits

Jesuits   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,781 words

...; and Physics .] Brockliss, L. W. French Higher Education in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries . Oxford, 1987. Dainville, F. de. L'éducation des jésuites XVI e –XVIII e ) siècles. Paris, 1978. Hellyers, M. Jesuit Physics in Eighteenth-Century Germany: Some Important Continuities. In The Jesuits: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540–1773 , edited by J. W. O'malley , G. A. Bailey , S. J. Harris , and T. F. Kennedy , pp. 538–554. Toronto, 1999. Pachtler, G. M. Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticas Societatis Jesu par Germaniam olim...

Republicanism

Republicanism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
12,571 words

...1988. Contains some interesting essays on political innovation (Van Sas) and conservative response (Velema). Result of a conference on the Patriot and Brabant revolution under the auspices of the Dutch/Belgian Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies. Grijzenhout, F. , W. W. Mijnhardt , and N. C. F. Van Sas , eds. Voor Vaderland en Vryheid: De Revolutie van de Patriotten . Amsterdam, 1987. Essays dealing with such themes as the Dutch Enlightenment (Mijnhardt), the political press (Van Sas), and political art (Grijzenhout) in the 1780s. Israel, Jonathan . ...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
11,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into the areas of Nutrition, Education, and Contemplation—aimed to revive early Christian society. Its center was an interdisciplinary academy designed as an educational establishment, surrounded by lecture halls forming a first circle, and their “armories”—laboratories, anatomical institutes, musical instrument and natural collections—forming a second circle. In Comenius's concept of the utopian academy Via Lucis (written in 1641/2 and published in 1668 ), the network of existing societies of scholars would revolve around a central academy, which...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,820 words

...retreat for the Spanish court. The palace there became the hub of two fanlike developments of the town and park, imitating the layout of the park in Versailles. The radiating axis on one side of the palace was intended by Ferdinand VI in 1750 to include a new quarter for 20,000 inhabitants, but this objective was never realized. The most beautiful and important new development in the Iberian Peninsula was in Portugal rather than Spain: the Praça do Commercio in Lisbon, a square opening onto the Tagus River in a manner very similar to the way the Place...

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
10,055 words

...forms of sociability. Thus, the “spectatorial message” flourished in the numerous societies, where it became a restoration movement intended to save the Republic from decay. The spectators treated religious toleration, the education of girls, the emancipation of women, the Frenchifying of the Dutch language, fashion, and marriage problems. Both atheists and religious fanatics were denounced, along with dandies, dissipated students, antisocial bookish people, quacks, swindlers, and thieving servants. Party politics were avoided. The dominant literary forms...

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der (1530–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
681 words

...to the Netherlands. From Antwerp, where an iconoclastic riot had broken out on 20 August, Heyden went to the northern Flemish towns of Axel and Hulst. There he preached from 24 to 29 August and organized further iconoclastic riots. In Antwerp again he joined those resisting the drift of the Reformed toward the Augsburg Confession. After the failure of the rebellion in the Netherlands, he again took up his function as pastor at Frankenthal in March 1567 . Close ties were formed with Philip Marnix van Saint Aldegonde . Heyden presided over the Synod of Emden...

Carioni, Battista

Carioni, Battista (1460–1534)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
952 words

...Grendler, Paul F. Man Is Almost a God: Fra Battista Carioni between Renaissance and Catholic Reformation. In Humanity and Divinity in Renaissance and Reformation: Essays in Honor of Charles Trinkaus , edited by John W. O'Malley , Thomas M. Izbicki , and Gerald Christianson , pp. 227–249. Leiden and New York, 1993. Only study in English. Emphasizes similarity to humanist conceptions of man's greatness and influence on Catholic Reformation. Pezzella, S. Carioni, Battista (Battista da Crema). In Dizionario biografico degli italiani , vol. 20, pp. 115–118....

Excommunication

Excommunication   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,569 words

...f., 2 Jn. 10f.), not to eat with them ( 1 Cor. 5:3ff.), or give them lodging or greet them ( 2 Jn. 10f.). Luther in 1519–1520 echoes such sentiments in his Sermon von dem Bann . According to Gabriel Biel , handing over the public fornicator to Satan ( 1 Cor. 5:4, 1 Tim. 1:19f., 2 Tim. 4:14) is synonymous with excommunication. Johann Eck in his Enchiridion cites Titus 3:10—“Warn a divisive person once, and then warn him a second time. After that have nothing to do with him”—and also Romans 8:9 and Acts 5:1–11; see also Revelation 2:20....

Lollardy

Lollardy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,932 words

...vernacular books that might prove fatally incriminating in the hands of artisans. In Colchester, Coventry, and London, Lollard connections extended into rich office-holding families, including mayors and their wives. Well-off heretics of less distinction were able to pay bribes of £20 to avoid public penance, or to burn books worth more than £65 to evade conviction—sums that were fortunes for most working people. Lollard opinions had become deeply entrenched in parts of Kent, Essex, south Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire. Bristol was among the towns...

Calvin, John

Calvin, John (1509–1564)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,462 words

...influence, not only in the ecclesiastical arena but also in social and cultural realms. The intellectual stream that sprang from “Calvinist” theology (the reformer himself rejected the name Calvinism; CR 20, 76f) “transmitted through means of a doctrinal, structural, confessional and missionary dynamic a world view grounded in religion and led to specific forms of secular structures in state and public affairs, economics and careers” (E. W. Zeeden, “Calvinismus,” in Staatslexikon: Recht, Wirtschaft, und Beruf , Freiburg im Breisgau, 1958 , pp. 339–347) His...

Congregationalism

Congregationalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,179 words

...views of radical Puritans and Separatists. Collinson, Patrick . Godly People: Essays on English Protestantism and Puritanism . London, 1983. Chapter 20 discusses the historiographical treatment of congregationalism. Kingdon, Robert M. Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, 1564–1572 . Madison, Wis., 1967. Definitive account of the Morély-Bèze dispute. Nuttall, Geoffrey F. Visible Saints: The Congregational Way 1640–1660 . Oxford, 1957. Substantive historical introduction traces the development of congregational principles....

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