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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...safeguards mentioned above. Pre‐archival or intermediate records are in process of appraisal for retention and one is left with the archival material, which may be consulted by the public, and which forms the basis of the remainder of this essay. In a different category are the digital records which became a feature of the later years of the 20th century. The need to preserve what are frequently ephemeral communications has been recognized, and the difficulties of effective digital preservation, in an era of rapidly changing technologies and...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...channels. There is nothing more characteristically 20 th -century, or more British, than the Penguin. As historians of Penguin know, however, the launch of the company in the 1930s drew as much from continuity and revival as it did from change and revolution. The post- 1914 period has similarly been one of upheaval, but also of evolution: in production techniques; business practices; the culture of publishing; and in books themselves, both in form and in content. Indeed, a history of the book in 20 th -century Britain could be told through some of the...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...such as Gareth and Trevor are Anglicizations of Celtic names. Other first names have been derived from the Bible, notably David, the patron saint of Wales, in the Welsh forms Dafydd and Dewi, which have produced the surnames Davies, Davis, Davy, Dackyn, Dakin, etc. In the 20th century many old Welsh names have been consciously revived and some new names, such as Glenda and Dyfed, have been formed from Celtic words. See T. J. Morgan and Prys Morgan , Welsh Surnames (1985) , for a historical introduction to the subject and a dictionary of names, and John ...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(beginning ad 1781 ). In Laos, the Christian Era, which remains officially in use today, was introduced by the French at the end of the 19 th century. Until the mid-20 th century, the Buddhist Era (starting 543 bc ), the Chunlasakkarāt, and the Mahāsakkarāt eras were also used. Traditionally, the Lao followed a lunar-solar calendar similar to the Cambodian model. 3 Book forms *Palm-leaf MSS and folding books were produced for a variety of purposes in Buddhist monasteries and at the royal and local courts in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. The...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the documents were demonstrably corrupt (i.e. resistant to interpretation by appeal to contextual knowledge) anticipates key features of the *Greg – *Bowers position in 20 th -century textual theory. The most important contribution to classical and biblical editing was the extended formulation of stemmatics by *Lachmann ( 1793–1853 ), and his forerunners F. A. Wolf , K. G. Zumpt , and F. W. Ritschl . For textual traditions where the original MSS are lost, even sophisticated practitioners lacked a clear and overriding principle for understanding relations...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with Russia and later the Soviet Union. Lithuania in turn has strong historical ties to Poland; the two countries formed a ‘Republic of two Nations’ (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów) between 1569 and 1795 , and share a predominantly Catholic faith. Particularly in Estonia and Latvia, the Reformation played a major role in the spread of books and reading in the vernacular. Latvian and Lithuanian are both Baltic languages and form part of the Indo-European linguistic family, whereas Estonian is a Finno-Ugric language, which in part explains the...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Both these elements offer a way into the history of the subject and a framework for its analysis; however, they also create a tendency to push the development of forms of ephemeral material into the 19 th and 20 th centuries, which become, by implication, an age of ephemera. Nobody suggests that such material was not produced before 1800 ; but the almost total loss of many or most of the early forms—whose rarity is marked by the high commercial value of such items as advertisements for night soil removal—has created some distortion. Similarly, a historical...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Denmark’s *Kyster as pioneers. Early 20 th -century Scandinavian *typography was strongly influenced by Modernism (Hugo Lagerström, Steen Eiler Rasmussen). In the 1940s and 1950s , British axial typography prevailed in fiction (C. Volmer Nordlunde) and Swiss asymmetry in *textbooks (Viggo Naae, *Forsberg ). From the 1960s onwards, both lines were typographically improved ( *Frederiksen , Carl Fredrik Hultenheim, *Kristensen ), and increased *legibility became a major desideratum (Bror Zachrisson). Late 20 th -century typographers excelled in...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...about 1910 , the decorative, flowing forms of Jugendstil increasingly contrasted with the hard, broken forms of Expressionism—among whose exponents as book illustrators were *Kokoschka , Max Beckmann, Ernst Barlach, and *Kubin . The growing number of design-conscious mainstream publishers included Anton Kippenberg of the *Insel -Verlag in Leipzig, Eugen Diederichs at Düsseldorf, and Hans von Weber, who founded his Hyperion-Verlag in Munich in 1906 . The momentous political events that overwhelmed Germany in the 20 th century inevitably affected the...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an influential figure in the development of the *Designer Bookbinder movement in the later 20 th century: *blind-tooling on yellow *goatskin . The upper cover of H. E. Bates’s Through the Woods (London, 1936). © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. (C.128.f.10) the formation of the Guild of Contemporary Bookbinders in 1955 (subsequently renamed *Designer...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...during the 20 th century, increasingly shared with a design or production department within a publisher’s office—could now be performed by one person with a small computer on a desk. By providing their text in digital form, authors became the primary typesetters of their own books. The advent of the electronic book was in many respects an outgrowth of these new, computerized production technologies. 5 Conclusion The printed book as an object has not changed radically since its introduction in the 15 th century. To be sure, the varieties of its form are now...

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England (1993) — ‘Oral and Scribal Texts in Early Modern England’, in CHBB 4 A. F. Marotti , Manuscript, Print and the English Renaissance Lyric (1995) D. F. McKenzie , ‘Speech–manuscript–print’, in New Directions in Textual Studies , ed. D. Oliphant and R. Bradford (1990) D. McKitterick , Print, Manuscript and the Search for Order, 1450–1830 (2003) W. Notestein and F. H. Relf , Commons Debates for 1629 (1921) P. O’Brian , The Final Unfinished Voyage of Jack Aubrey (2004) W. J. Ong, SJ , ...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...and intellectual C. F. Volney , observed an increase in reading and writing among the Levantine Christians in that period. In his view, however, the press’s potential for such improvement was vitiated by the exclusively religious nature of the books printed there. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks revived Muslim printing in Istanbul in the second decade of the 18 th century, when İbrahim *Müteferrika began printing engraved maps, using copper *plates , and probably techniques, imported from Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...began to appear and would soon become the norm. The century, and before long the dynasty, ended amid an outpouring of publications, new in form and content. Journalism, especially pictorial journals and serial fiction, attracted a wide audience. New publishers using lithography and Western-style movable type sprang up everywhere, but especially in Shanghai. 4 The 20 th century The future course of books and publishing in 20 th -century China was set in 1897 with the founding of *Shangwu Yinshuguan (Commercial Press) in Shanghai. After the abolition of the...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...1 Pictorial MSS 2 Book restrictions under colonial rule 3 Independence and the print revolution 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century 5 Trends and perspectives for the 21 st century 1 Pictorial MSS Before the Spanish conquest, the people of the Americas had a wide range of systems for recording dates, astronomical information, and numerical data. Writing, in the form of pictograms that represent meanings with no relation to sounds, was used by virtually all indigenous groups throughout the continent. Good examples are...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...principally as booksellers and *jobbing printers ; some, notably Ballarat’s F. W. Niven (who developed an innovative crisp *photolithographic process), played a major part in the industry’s development. South Australian and Tasmanian publishers concentrated on localized almanacs, guidebooks, and technical works. In Adelaide, the major figures were E. S. Wigg (active from 1849 ) and W. C. Rigby (active from 1859 ); the firms they established flourished well into the 20 th century. Hobart publishing was dominated by the Davies family—proprietors of...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...forms in securing the influence of Christianity in the region; his legacy in making the Bible available in Hausa is particularly valuable. Casely Hayford’s Ethiopia Unbound ( 1911 ) was long regarded as the first fictional work in English by an African writer, although credit is now given to the unidentified author of Marita: or the Folly of Love (serialized in Gold Coast’s Western Echo , 1886–8 ) and to Walters for Guanya Pau ( 1891 ). Missionaries and mission-educated Africans were not alone in directing printing and publishing. From the mid-20 th ...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sought to put into practice his vision of urban history as a ‘central place’ where ‘an unusually large variety of disciplines, interests and tendencies could converge’. In contrast to the rural historians, the emphasis at first was on the 19th and 20th centuries, until a separate Early Towns Group was formed, and Peter Clark and Paul Slack edited Crisis and Order in English Towns, 1500–1700 ( 1972 ), the first of a series of cooperative works on the Tudor and Stuart period. Whereas the older urban histories had concentrated on legal and constitutional...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...probability) to India and thence to Southeast Asia. By the 20 th century, as a consequence of colonial empires, most of the world’s peoples except the Chinese and Japanese were writing in alphabetic scripts. These employ on average between 20 and 40 basic signs; the smallest, Rotokas, used in Papua New Guinea, has 12 letters, the largest, Khmer, used in Cambodia, has 74 letters. The western alphabetic link between the Greeks and the Romans was Etruscan—as is clear from the early Greek letter-forms inscribed on Etruscan objects dating from the 7 th century ...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are the major distinguishing features which have shaped the architectural forms taken by buildings with a predominantly domestic function, and these have played a significant part in the historiography of the subject. The study of the house until comparatively recently has been largely the history of the high‐status dwelling, strongly influenced by considerations of architectural aesthetics, and mainly written by the landowning classes and their professional advisers. It is only in the 20th century that the houses lived in by the vast majority of the population...

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