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Fine Art Copyright Act

1862. British law extending copyright protection to photographs as well as works of art. This was done, despite arguments that photography was merely a ‘mechanical process’, ...

Fine Art Copyright Act

Fine Art Copyright Act (1862)   Reference library

Robin Lenman

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
142 words

... Art Copyright Act , 1862 . British law extending copyright protection to photographs as well as works of art. This was done, despite arguments that photography was merely a ‘mechanical process’, partly to encourage foreign participation in the imminent 1862 International Exhibition. (In the event, photographs were excluded from the fineart section.) To obtain protection, photographers had to register images at Stationers' Hall, London, and pay a fee. Over 250,000 items were registered during the Act's lifetime ( 1862–1912 ). Most were commercial...

Fine Art Copyright Act

Fine Art Copyright Act  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1862.British law extending copyright protection to photographs as well as works of art. This was done, despite arguments that photography was merely a ‘mechanical process’, partly to encourage ...
Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...trends and keep down costs, manufacturers relied on copying high quality samples or designs. The Select Committee exposed a serious division of opinion between the protectionists, who wanted to introduce a copyright law on original designs, and the free trade manufacturers, who pushed the economics of scale to the limit. The former, who were mainly fine printers producing the most original, complicated, and expensive designs for the middle classes, asserted that the patrician character of the original was impaired when it became plebeian. The latter, the...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...lacked central political authority, while its largest and most powerful city, Amsterdam, at times acted like a state within a state. A situation existed in which censorship was by no means absent, but could only be practised in a limited manner. Even the system of *privileges , which in other countries served as a means of preventive government control, in the northern Netherlands remained confined to its primary function as a protection of publishers’ *copyrights . Combined with long-established traditions of tolerance, these realities earned the Dutch...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different cities: thus, when an Osaka publisher put...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Australian Bookseller and Publisher . Art publishing gathered momentum during World War I with Thomas Lothian’s production in 1916 of two lavish books, The Art of Frederick McCubbin and Ida Rentoul Outhwaite’s Elves and Fairies . Sydney Ure Smith established two key journals: Art in Australia ( 1916–42 ), with its *tipped-in colour plates, provided a forum for the fine arts; The Home ( 1920–42 ), although focused on interior design and decoration, included articles about contemporary art, and featured covers by such notable artists as ...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

Abhijit Gupta

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,070 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the lead in standardizing publishing, and bringing it more into line with international practice. The first attempts to form trade associations took place during this time, notably in the College Street book mart in Calcutta. The passing of the Indian Copyright Act of 1914 ratified the 1911 British Act with minor changes, and helped clarify author–publisher relations. Another notable development was the rise of specialist publishers, leading to the standardization of editorial and scholarly practices, a task initiated by learned societies such as the ...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...41 ]. Though he began the treatise as a student in Dublin, he had left for the greater opportunities available in London by the time it was published. Dublin, however, remained an important centre for *publishing [21] , especially because of the relative ease of evading *copyright there. In this it was rivalled by Belfast, a city also very conscious of its role in enlightened culture. The Northern Star , a Belfast newspaper launched in 1792 , carried in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or unfinished manuscripts published posthumously after being edited and completed by a colleague or admirer of the deceased. Furthermore, the ancients tended to have different attitudes towards authorship than are standard in our own culture, with its notions of copyright and intellectual property. Take, for example, this statement by the late second-century Christian writer Tertullian: ‘[The Gospel] which was published by Mark may be maintained to be Peter's, whose interpreter Mark was, just as the narrative of Luke is generally ascribed to...

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... Joiada I b. ca. 470 Reprinted with permission from Zechariah 9–14 (Anchor Bible, vol. 25C) by Eric M. Meyers and Carol L. Meyers. Copyright © 1993 by Doubleday. Table 8.2 Governors of Samaria; Governors and High Priests of Judah (445–335 bce ) ...

Copyright

Copyright   Reference library

Christopher T. Hill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,301 words

...power to grant copyrights to authors, which it did by adopting a general copyright act, signed by President George Washington in May 1790 . This act gave authors the sole right to print works for fourteen years, renewable for a second fourteen-year period. Authors were required to deposit copies of their work with the secretary of state and with the district court for the district in which they lived. Copyright was available to U.S. citizens, while works by foreigners and imported works were not protected. Concepts and mechanisms of copyright protection have...

Copyright

Copyright   Reference library

William Lichtenwanger and Mary Wallace Davidson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,582 words

...of the music licensing agencies, and the World Trade Organization, which in 2001 fined the USA $3.3 million for violating its obligations under the Berne Convention. Except for the Sonny Bono Act, the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 (Pub. L. No. 105–304, 112 Stat. 2860) was possibly the most controversial and pervasive in its effect. Title I brought US law into compliance with the earlier WPPT agreement, prohibited circumvention of copyright protection systems (known as digital rights management) except for encryption research, and...

Copyright

Copyright   Reference library

Darren Hudson Hick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,884 words

...works protected by copyright. The original Statue of Anne offered protection only to books, with further Acts of Parliament extending protection to engravings, statues, plays, and musical works. The clause in the United States Constitution that empowered Congress to enact copyright and patent law speaks of “Writings and Discoveries,” and the first U.S. copyright act (the Copyright Act of 1790 ), protected maps, charts, and books. Copyright has over the centuries extended in scope, however, and now generally protects most works of the fine and applied arts....

Appropriation

Appropriation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...these works might have been challenged for copyright infringement but for the fact that, measured under any copyright law, the earlier works had long ago entered the public domain. In the last part of this century, however, copyright issues have become prominent among visual artists because of the merging of fine art and popular culture, in which artists incorporate—by design, although not necessarily for the same reasons—copyrighted images into their own works. These range from the collage that combines copyrighted material with other images and media to form...

Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
13,620 words
Illustration(s):
2

...prints, music, drama, photographs, and fine art. In Burrow-Giles v. Sarony, 111 U.S. 53 ( 1884 ), the Supreme Court gave its approval to such expansions of the categories of protectable “Writings” (including those produced using new technologies). Congress also recognized additional rights to perform drama and music and to prepare derivative works, lengthened the initial term of protection to twenty-eight years, and in 1897 centralized the government's copyright activities by establishing the Copyright Office within the Library of Congress. Equally...

Appropriation

Appropriation   Reference library

Crispin Sartwell and Gloria C. Phares

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,450 words
Illustration(s):
1

...works might have been challenged for copyright infringement but for the fact that, measured under any copyright law, the earlier works had long ago entered the public domain. In the latter half of the twentieth century, however, copyright issues became prominent among visual artists because of the merging of fine art and popular culture, in which artists incorporate—by design, although not necessarily for the same reasons—copyrighted images into their own works. These range from the collage that combines copyrighted material with other images and media to...

Author

Author   Reference library

Darren Hudson Hick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,816 words

...Three years later, Congress acted on this power by instituting the first federal American copyright law, the Copyright Act of 1790 , taken almost verbatim from the Statute of Anne. In the decades and centuries to follow, most countries would institute copyright laws to protect the rights of creators with regard to their works. Modern art criticism, too, developed in the eighteenth century with the writings of French critics, La Font de Saint-Yenne and Denis Diderot, who attempted to capture in words the art on exhibition at the Paris Salons,...

professional organizations, photographers'

professional organizations, photographers'   Reference library

David Matthews

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
492 words

...the rights and dignities of the profession by all legitimate means’. Membership was open to studio proprietors and principals; assistants were excluded. The PPA concerned itself particularly with the copyright and royalty issues raised by the emergence of a national illustrated press, and contributed to the consultations leading to the 1911 Copyright Act. After several changes of name, it became the British Institute of Professional Photographers ( BIPP ) in 1983 . The legal status of professional bodies varies from country to country, as does the type...

Law and Art

Law and Art   Reference library

Daniel Shapiro, Daniel Shapiro, David Cole, Marjorie Heins, Richard Lehv, Roger A. Shiner, Brian Soucek, and Alain Pottage

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
23,250 words

...Art, LLC v. PME Holdings , 2008 WL 5205822 (D. Utah, 2008). Galerie Furstenberg v. Coffaro , 697 F. Supp. 1282 (S.D.N.Y. 1988). Gilliam v. American Broadcasting Companies, Inc ., 538 F.2d 14 (2d Cir. 1976). Hughes v. Design Look, Inc ., 693 F. Supp. 1500 (S.D.N.Y. 1988). Romm Art Creations Ltd. v. Simcha International, Inc ., 786 F. Supp. 1126 (E.D.N.Y. 1992). Smith v. Montoro , 648 F.2d 602 (9th Cir. 1981). Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Samara Bros., Inc . 529 U.S. 205 (2000). Statutes Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 101 et seq . (1976). Lanham Act,...

Dickens, Charles John Huffam

Dickens, Charles John Huffam   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
502 words

...owing to the absence of Copyright laws Dickens received nothing for them. Dickens's characters are so vivid, his plots so dramatic, that it is not surprising they did well on the stage. Many famous actors had their favourite Dickens characters, Irving appearing as Jingle (from The Pickwick Papers ), Tree as Fagin (from Oliver Twist ), and, most successful of all, Martin-Harvey as Sidney Carton in The Only Way (based on A Tale of Two Cities ). Betsey Prig and Sairey Gamp (from Martin Chuzzlewit ) were for a long time acted by men. Three of ...

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