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Fertility and Infertility

Subject: History

Fertility is a measure of reproduction that can be approached from cross-cultural, biocultural, and evolutionary perspectives to characterize many facets of life in historical populations. ...

Fertility and Infertility

Fertility and Infertility   Reference library

Gwen Robbins

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
2,630 words
Illustration(s):
1

... and Infertility . Fertility is a measure of reproduction that can be approached from cross-cultural, biocultural, and evolutionary perspectives to characterize many facets of life in historical populations. Fertility is commonly measured at the population level using ratios such as the crude birth rate, calculated by dividing the number of live births by the total population size, then multiplying the result by 1,000. The crude birth rate represents the average number of live births across the entire population, regardless of the population structure....

Fertility and Infertility Treatments

Fertility and Infertility Treatments   Reference library

Sarah Islam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,879 words

...rights within the family framework and potential for honor and respect. Fertility and Infertility Treatments in Medieval Muslim Societies. Given the importance of producing offspring, medieval Muslim physicians prescribed numerous remedies for infertility and miscarriage. Medieval medical encyclopedias, such as those written by ʿAlī ibn al-ʿAbbās al-Majūsī, Abū al-Qāsim al-Zahrāwī, and Ibn Sīnā regularly contained chapters dealing with illnesses related to the female reproductive organs and complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Scholars of medicine also...

Fertility and Infertility

Fertility and Infertility  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Fertility is a measure of reproduction that can be approached from cross-cultural, biocultural, and evolutionary perspectives to characterize many facets of life in historical populations. Fertility ...
Hosea

Hosea   Reference library

John Day and John Day

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,823 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...divine speech, unlike the preceding and following sections. They describe how, though YHWH found Israel in the wilderness like grapes or the first ripe figs, they committed apostasy with Baal-peor ( v. 10 ), and following in the same train ever since, they are destined to infertility ( cf. vv. 11–14, 16 ). Since Baal was a fertility god, there is evident irony here. v. 10 speaks of Israel's apostasy to Baal-peor, recalling Num 25:1–5 . ‘Shame’ ( Heb. bōšet ) is a euphemism for ‘Baal’. v. 13 a is difficult and various renderings have been given. v....

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age   Reference library

Wayne T. Pitard

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,805 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...priest's library. The most important component of this library was a collection of myths and epic poems, the only such collection preserved from Canaan. These provide us with considerable insight into the nature of the Canaanite pantheon: El, the father of the gods and their king; Baal, the storm and fertility deity and the active ruler of the gods, though not without dissension; Asherah, the wife of El and mother of the gods; and Anat, the volatile sister of Baal and goddess of war. The most significant mythic texts are a series of tablets that...

allopolyploidy

allopolyploidy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A condition in which the genomes that contribute to a polyploid organism are dissimilar. Such an organism is generally infertile, but a further doubling to produce an amphidiploid will restore ...
human menopausal gonadotrophin

human menopausal gonadotrophin  

A gonadotrophin combining the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which is extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women and administered by intramuscular or ...
Greek concept of pollution

Greek concept of pollution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Societies create order by stigmatizing certain disorderly conditions and events and persons as ‘polluting’, that is, by treating them as metaphorically unclean and dangerous. The pollutions generally ...
human menopausal gonadotropin

human menopausal gonadotropin n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
50 words

...menopausal gonadotropin ( hMG , menotropin ) n. a gonadotropin combining the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. It is extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women and used to treat infertility caused by underactivity of the pituitary gland and to stimulate the ovaries in women undergoing fertility...

fertility

fertility   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
76 words

...fertility This refers to women’s and men’s ability to conceive children. The control of fertility (who controls it, what does the control consist of) has been a key concern for feminism . Since the 1980s the issue of infertility has also gained increasing prominence in feminist debates, as women and men delay childbearing for career and economic reasons and their ability to conceive declines, especially in the case of women whose eggs age as they...

follicle-stimulating hormone

follicle-stimulating hormone n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
73 words

...hormone ( FSH ) n. a hormone ( see gonadotropin ) synthesized and released by the anterior pituitary gland. FSH stimulates ripening of the follicles in the ovary and formation of sperm in the testes. Preparations of FSH ( follitropin alfa and beta , Gonal-F, Puregon; and urofollitropin , Fostimon) are administered by injection to treat infertility caused by underactivity of the pituitary gland and to stimulate the ovaries in women undergoing fertility...

fertility drugs

fertility drugs   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
74 words

... drugs Drugs taken to increase a woman's chances of conception and pregnancy. One cause of female sterility is insufficient secretion of pituitary hormones ; this can be treated with human chorionic gonadotropin or clomiphene citrate, although use of the latter can result in multiple births. In cases where fertilization occurs, but where the uterine lining is unable to support the fetus, the hormone progesterone may be used. Infertility cannot always be corrected with...

reproductive technologies

reproductive technologies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
144 words

...Means to enhance and support fertility, becoming pregnant, and having children. Such technologies include the processes involved in supporting fertility, such as sperm donation, the materials necessary for these processes, and the actual hardware to enable the processes to happen. One common procedure involving assisted reproductive technologies is in vitro fertilization by which an egg is removed from an ovary and fertilized with sperm outside the womb before being reimplanted. There are many different kinds of reproductive technologies, and the success in...

assisted reproductive technology

assisted reproductive technology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
127 words

...of techniques for improving the fertility of animals, including humans, in which eggs and/or sperm are extracted from the respective animal(s) for manipulation in some way. One of the best known is in vitro fertilization, in which ova (egg cells) are placed with sperm in a culture medium so that fertilization occurs and embryos start to develop. Healthy embryos are then selected and implanted in the mother’s uterus to continue their development. Such techniques are widely used to overcome certain forms of human infertility and in breeding elite livestock....

Infertility

Infertility   Reference library

Judith Herrin and Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
158 words

... (στείρωσις) was considered by the Byz. as a terrible misfortune; there are abundant stories of barren couples who sought the help of physicians, holy men, shrines, or magic in order to overcome this condition. A passage in Digenes Akritas (Grottaferrata version VII 180–88, ed. E. Trapp , p.342) evoked the grief of the childless Digenes and his wife Eudokia as they prayed daily for a baby. The vita of Antony the Younger indicates the enormous sums paid to doctors to cure barrenness. Amulets were a popular means of increasing fertility. Men's...

BARRENNESS

BARRENNESS   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
297 words

.... The first and most basic of the divine commandments is procreation ( Gn . 1.28). In general, the Bible presents infertility as a punishment and a curse ( Lv . 20.20–21; 2 Sm . 6.23), for example, when a desperate Rachel cries out to her husband, Jacob, that she would rather be dead than childless ( Gn . 30.1). Three matriarchs, Sarah, Rebekah, and Rachel, suffered from barrenness and only conceived after much prayer and supplication. The Talmud suggests that their condition was a means of provoking them to pray, and the prayer of such righteous...

fertility

fertility   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,196 words

...for infertility. Fertility, however, is not simply the expression of a woman's bodily capacity to procreate (fecundity). Recent anthropological and feminist theory advocates understanding fertility as the product of individual actions situated within a particular historical and cultural context. Women and men, responding to local and global changes in the political economy and available resources (e.g. social networks, abortifacients, and contraceptives), act as individuals to produce the family arrangement they prefer (Greenhalgh 1995 ). Women and men...

infertility

infertility   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,150 words

... may be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is when no pregnancy has ever occurred. Secondary infertility is when there have been one or more pregnancies but a further pregnancy has proved impossible. It has been estimated that the chances of conception for a given couple having regular sexual intercourse without any contraception are 80% and 90% after 12 months and 18 months respectively. It is therefore usual to begin investigations after one year. At this time some problems may be discovered and it should be possible, the basic tests having...

Ishtar

Ishtar (West Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of fertility and love. In Babylonian mythology Ishtar, the wife and sister of Tammuz, the Sumerian Dumuzi, descended to the nether world as a hostile and threatening figure, even Ereshkigal's face blanched on her approach. Yet she was overcome there by death, with the result on earth that the springs of fertility ran dry. Ea secured her release by means of a ‘brilliant’ eunuch, which captivated the heart of the mistress of infertility and death. An Akkadian fragment describes the wailing of Ishtar for Tammuz, whose annual death, resurrection, and marriage...

vitamin E

vitamin E   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
209 words

...anti-sterility factor ; fertility vitamin ) A group of related compounds called tocopherols, believed to maintain the integrity of cell membranes. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and mutually protects vitamins A and C. It also acts as an anti-blood-clotting agent and has been used in the USA to treat some heart diseases. Some coaches claim that it increases muscular development and function; this claim is hotly disputed, but there is considerable support for the suggestion that vitamin E reduces the oxygen requirements of muscles and so enhances performance....

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