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Overview

Federal Regulatory Agencies.

The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a ...

Federal Regulatory Agencies

Federal Regulatory Agencies   Reference library

Thomas K. McCraw

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,480 words

...to these major regulatory agencies, many other government bodies, including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Labor Relations Board, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Federal Reserve Board, also have important regulatory responsibilities. Resistance to Regulation.  As the twentieth century ended, however, political resistance to federal regulatory agencies grew. Critics on both the left and the right charged that too often such agencies were...

Regulatory Agencies, Federal

Regulatory Agencies, Federal   Reference library

Thomas K. McCraw and Stephen E. Randoll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,758 words

... Agencies, Federal The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a model for future agencies. Like the ICC, the agencies were established by Congress in response to crises in particular industries (or, occasionally, across industries). Staffed with persons thought to be experts and bipartisan or nonpartisan by law, most were nevertheless plagued by continual controversy. The ICC found its power limited by the...

Federal Regulatory Agencies.

Federal Regulatory Agencies.   Reference library

Thomas K. McCraw

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,101 words

...Federal Regulatory Agencies. The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a model for future agencies. Like the ICC, they were established by Congress in response to crises in particular industries (or, occasionally, across industries). Staffed with persons thought to be experts and bipartisan or nonpartisan by law, most were nevertheless plagued by continual controversy. The ICC found its power limited by the federal...

Federal Regulatory Agencies.

Federal Regulatory Agencies.  

The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a ...
Federal Register

Federal Register  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Daily publication of US executive branch notices and regulations, including presidential orders and proclamations. Established in 1936 after Congress began delegating regulatory powers to executive ...
Federal Election Commission

Federal Election Commission  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is a bipartisan independent regulatory agency that administers federal campaign finance laws. It was established by the Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments ...
San Remo Hotel, L.P. v. City and County of San Francisco

San Remo Hotel, L.P. v. City and County of San Francisco  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
545 U.S. 323 (2005), argued Mar. 28, 2005, decided June 20, 2005 by vote of 9 to 0; Stevens for the Court; Rehnquist concurred in the judgment and filed a separate opinion, joined by O’Connor, ...
CCITT

CCITT  

Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphique et Téléphonique (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee), originally, an agency of the International Telecommunications Union ...
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois

Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
118 U.S. 557 (1886), argued 14–15 Apr. 1886, decided 25 Oct. 1886 by vote of 6 to 3; Miller for the Court, Bradley, Waite, and Gray in dissent. In Wabash, the Supreme Court held that the states have ...
Ralph Nader

Ralph Nader  

(1934– )US lawyer and leading figure in the US consumer protection movement.Educated at Princeton and Harvard Law School, Nader was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1958 and took up private ...
Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission (USA)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Commerce Commission ( ICC ) (USA) . The US federal agency charged with regulating interstate commerce and transportation. Although deregulation in the 1970s and 1980s has reduced the importance of the ICC, it nevertheless retains a significant regulatory role in internal US business...

Federal Register

Federal Register   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
102 words

... Register Daily publication of US executive branch notices and regulations, including presidential orders and proclamations. Established in 1936 after Congress began delegating regulatory powers to executive agencies, the Federal Register informs citizens regarding agency rule-making. Agencies publish proposed rules to invite public comment and final rules to provide a timely record of official action. The Federal Register Index , arranged by agency name, supplements access to the daily issues. The Code of Federal Regulations provides access by...

Federal Trade Commission

Federal Trade Commission   Reference library

Ellis W. Hawley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
370 words

... Trade Commission An independent federal regulatory agency. Created in 1914 , the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was part of an antitrust settlement that included the Clayton Antitrust Act and congressional acceptance of a judicial “rule of reason,” which tolerated aspects of business concentration. Consisting of five appointed commissioners, the agency inherited the investigatory powers of an earlier Bureau of Corporations and became the administrator of regulatory legislation outlawing “unfair methods of competition.” Subsequently, it also became the...

Federal Trade Commission

Federal Trade Commission   Reference library

Ellis W. Hawley

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
362 words

...Federal Trade Commission (FTC), an independent federal regulatory agency. Created in 1914 , the FTC was part of an antitrust settlement that included the Clayton Antitrust Act and congressional acceptance of a judicial “rule of reason,” which tolerated aspects of business concentration. Consisting of five appointed commissioners, the agency inherited the investigatory powers of an earlier Bureau of Corporations and became the administrator of regulatory legislation outlawing “unfair methods of competition”. Subsequently, it also became the administrator of...

Federal Trade Commission

Federal Trade Commission   Reference library

Ellis W. Hawley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Trade Commission An independent federal regulatory agency created in 1914 , the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was part of an antitrust settlement that included the Clayton Antitrust Act and congressional acceptance of a judicial “rule of reason,” which tolerated aspects of business concentration. Consisting of five appointed commissioners, the agency inherited the investigatory powers of the earlier Bureau of Corporations and became the administrator of regulatory legislation outlawing “unfair methods of competition.” Subsequently the FTC also became...

Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (USA)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Futures Trading Commission ( CFTC ) (USA) . The federal regulatory agency charged by Congress with overseeing the activities of futures trading, in particular commodity futures , created by the Commodity Futures Trading Act of 1974 . It is responsible for the trading practices of the individual futures and commodity exchanges, authorizes new commodity contracts, and has, like the Securities and Exchange commission , investigative and disciplinary powers. All the commissioners are presidential appointees who are confirmed by...

Energy, Department of

Energy, Department of   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Department of an agency of the U.S. government created in October 1977 responsible for long-range, high-risk research and development of energy technology, power marketing at the federal level, the promotion of energy conservation, oversight of the nuclear weapons program, regulatory programs, and the collection and analysis of energy data. The need for energy research, development, and regulation began with the creation of the Manhattan Project in 1942 . At the end of World War II , after vigorously debating whether control of the atom should lie...

executive branch

executive branch   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
243 words

...his Executive Office agencies to supervise their budgets, their legislative requests to Congress, and the regulations they make and enforce. Independent regulatory agencies (such as the Federal Trade Commission), units of government that are insulated by Congress from political direction (such as the Federal Reserve Board), as well as several agencies that perform functions for Congress (such as the Congressional Budget Office) are not part of the executive branch. Presidential appointment and removal powers over officials in these agencies may be limited by...

Securities and Exchange Commission

Securities and Exchange Commission   Reference library

John D. Buenker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...powers, the SEC makes decisions that can be appealed in federal court. For many observers, the SEC epitomizes the reform spirit of the New Deal era and has set a standard of excellence for federal regulatory commissions. Some critics, however, insist that the agency's reliance on self-regulation has served the interests of the securities industry better than it has served those of investors and the general public. [ See also Commodity Futures Markets ; Federal Regulatory Agencies ; Federal Trade Commission ; Financial and Banking Promotion and...

Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection Agency   Reference library

Christopher Sellers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...divide consolidating between Republicans and Democrats over the role and worth of federal environmental policy. The George W. Bush administrations deprioritized the agency’s work, often to the chagrin of appointed administrators. Although the administration of Barack Obama early on proved much friendlier to new regulatory initiatives from the EPA, Republican opposition to global warming and other environmental concerns combined with the “Great Recession” to weaken the agency’s hand. [ See also Cancer ; Carson, Rachel ; Environmentalism ; Global Warming ;...

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