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Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), created by the Federal Communications Act of 1934, assumed all federal oversight of broadcasting, telephone, and telegraph services. Under the ...

Federal Communications Commission

Federal Communications Commission   Reference library

James L. Baughman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), created by the Federal Communications Act of 1934 , assumed all federal oversight of broadcasting, telephone, and telegraph services. Under the initial terms of the act, the president appointed seven commissioners to seven-year terms; in 1982 , Congress reduced the number of commissioners to five, serving five-year terms. Congress gave the FCC limited powers and scant funding. Like the Federal Radio Commission, which regulated broadcasting from 1927 to 1934 , the FCC awarded...

Federal Communications Commission

Federal Communications Commission   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
66 words

...Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ) An independent agency of the US government that, since 1934 , has licensed radio and television broadcasters, among other things. In recent decades the FCC has frequently been criticized by lobby groups such as Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) for failing to resist the concentration of ownership within commercial media. See also deregulation . http://www.fcc.gov/media-bureau The FCC’s Media...

Federal Communications Commission

Federal Communications Commission   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
279 words

... Communications Commission Believing that the airways belong to the people and should not be monopolized by private interests, Congress created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934 as a successor to the original Federal Radio Commission. As an independent regulatory agency, the FCC regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States. The FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Each commissioner serves a five-year term, and no more than...

Federal Communications Commission.

Federal Communications Commission.   Reference library

James L. Baughman and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
424 words

...Federal Communications Commission. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), created by the Federal Communications Act of 1934 , assumed all federal oversight of broadcasting, telephone , and telegraph services. Under the initial terms of the act, the president appointed seven commissioners to seven-year terms; in 1982 , Congress reduced the number of commissioners to five, serving five-year terms. Congress gave the FCC limited powers and scant funding; the first commissioners were obscure radio engineers and attorneys with no incentive to alter the...

Federal Communications Commission

Federal Communications Commission   Reference library

Christopher H. Sterling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,089 words

... Communications Commission Created by the Communications Act of 1934 , the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) grew out of the Federal Radio Commission (FRC) that from 1927 to 1934 had rationalized the regulation of radio broadcast-ing. By the beginning of President Franklin Roosevelt ’s New Deal, however, growing complexity in electrical communications led to calls for a more comprehensive independent regulatory agency. Incorporating the earlier FRC, the new FCC was expanded to seven commissioners (from five) to incorporate regulation of...

Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission

Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
360 words

...Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission , 497 U.S. 547 ( 1990 ) argued 28 Mar. 1990 , decided 27 June 1990 by vote of 5 to 4; Brennan for the Court, O’Connor, Kennedy, Scalia, and Rehnquist in dissent. In affirming the power of Congress to enact policies that favor African-Americans and other minorities, the Court upheld two federal affirmative action programs intended to increase minority ownership of broadcast licenses. One of the major issues in contention was whether the FCC's desire to promote diversification in programming is served by...

Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission

Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission   Reference library

Herbert Hill

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
316 words

...Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission , 497 U.S. 547 ( 1990 ) argued 28 Mar. 1990 , decided 27 June 1990 by vote of 5 to 4; Brennan for the Court, O'Connor , Kennedy , Scalia and Rehnquist in dissent. In affirming the power of Congress to enact policies that favor African‐Americans and other minorities, the Court upheld two federal affirmative action programs intended to increase minority ownership of broadcast licenses. One of the major issues in contention was whether the FCC's desire to promote diversification in programming is...

Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission

Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
290 words

...Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission , 395 U.S. 367 ( 1969 ), argued 2– 3 April 1969 , decided 9 June 1969 by vote of 8 to 0; White for the Court; Douglas not participating. In Red Lion the Court upheld the fairness doctrine of the Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ), which requires broadcast licensees to allow reply time to individuals subjected to personal attacks or political editorials. In this instance, radio station WGCB refused to allow Fred Cook, the author of a book critical of Arizona senator Barry Goldwater,...

Federal Communications Commission

Federal Communications Commission  

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), created by the Federal Communications Act of 1934, assumed all federal oversight of broadcasting, telephone, and telegraph services. Under the initial ...
Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission

Metro Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
497 U.S. 547 (1990) argued 28 Mar. 1990, decided 27 June 1990 by vote of 5 to 4; Brennan for the Court, O’Connor, Kennedy, Scalia, and Rehnquist in dissent. In affirming the power of Congress to ...
24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...over German intellectual life. The Frankfurt fair, however, lost its dominant role. Many dealers, especially foreigners, failed to resume their activities there after 1648 , the restrictions imposed by the Jesuit-dominated Imperial Book Commission proving serious disincentives. The attempts of the Commission and the * Index Librorum Prohibitorum to control books were largely ineffective, however, in part because their workings were arbitrary. Titles sometimes appeared on the Index simply because their authors were non-Catholics. Books in the...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Society had also invested heavily in steam-powered printing (using the new Treadwell press) and mechanized papermaking (with *Fourdrinier machine s) ( see 10 , 11 ). Even as the societies’ nationwide distribution networks launched what would later be recognized as modern communications, their message was explicitly anti-commercial. The book market, they argued, spread the gospel of greed and immorality in the form of vicious literature, which only an equally vigorous programme of religious publishing could combat. The religious societies’ early business...

Federal Regulatory Agencies.

Federal Regulatory Agencies.  

The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a ...
Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. Federal Communications

Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. Federal Communications  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
395 U.S. 367 (1969), argued 2–3 April 1969, decided 9 June 1969 by vote of 8 to 0; White for the Court, Douglas not participating. In Red Lion the Court ...
Satellite Communications.

Satellite Communications.  

Satellite communication was the only truly commercial space technology to be developed in the first forty years or so after the beginning of the space age in 1957. Perhaps the ...
common carrier

common carrier  

In the US, a private business or corporation that offers to the public general communication services such as telephone or intercomputer communications. Common carriers are regulated by the Federal ...
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission

McConnell v. Federal Election Commission  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
540 U.S. 93 (2003), argued 8 Sept. 2003, decided 10 Dec. 2003 by vote of 5 to 4; Stevens and O’Connor for the Court, joined by Souter, Ginsberg, and Breyer (Titles I and II). Rehnquist for the Court ...
CCITT

CCITT  

Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphique et Téléphonique (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee), originally, an agency of the International Telecommunications Union ...
public Broadcasting.

public Broadcasting.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Throughout their history, public radio and television have struggled to survive in a minimally regulated broadcasting system dominated by commercial interests. Although educational radio stations ...
televangelism.

televangelism.  

Chiefly in the US, an evangelical preacher who appears regularly on television to promote beliefs and appeal for funds.

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