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F scale

A questionnaire to measure authoritarianism, first published by the German philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno (1903–69) and several colleagues in the ...

F scale

F scale n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...; Sex (exaggerated concern with people's sexual activities): The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country, even in places where people might least expect it . Also called the California F scale . [From ( Potentiality for ) F ( ascism ) scale...

California F scale

California F scale n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...F scale n. Another name for the F scale . California A–S scale See A–S scale . California E scale See E scale . California PEC scale See PEC scale...

F scale

F scale  

A questionnaire to measure authoritarianism, first published by the German philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno (1903–69) and several colleagues in the book The ...
14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of printers engaged in the mixed production of books, serials, and jobbing printing has done little, if anything, to augment our understanding of the ephemeral materials themselves. The modern chronology of the output of ephemeral print must be weighed against the huge scale of material produced across the early modern period. One factor that drove the increase in printed ephemera was the erratic but continuous move from MS to print ( see 13 ). From the early 17 th century, serial information, including news, moved from handwritten copies to a...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...less obviously extensive revisions. In Shakespearean textual criticism, it has resulted in discrete editions of the 1608 quarto History of King Lear and the 1623 Folio Tragedy of King Lear . Parker has argued that relatively small-scale authorial revisions may have partly or wholly unintended consequences for large-scale textual meaning. Greg’s textual discriminations have come under fire, as mechanisms of selection and control, in recent arguments for ‘ *unediting ’ that dismiss cases for textual choice (on interpretive or bibliographical grounds) as...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The edifice of labour institutional history is much developed. We have comprehensive general histories of trade unionism ; an introduction in Henry Pelling , A History of British Trade Unionism (5th edn, 1992 ); and detailed studies more on the scale of the Webbs’ work, notably H. A. Clegg , A. Fox , and A. F. Thompson , A History of British Trade Unions since 1889 , i: 1889–1910 , followed by H. A. Clegg , ii: 1911–1933 , and iii: 1934–1951 ( 1964–94 ; 3 vols, 1994 ). The Trades Union Congress, founded in 1868 , has no complete detailed history,...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the work's extraordinary scale and long period of gestation—left the artist badly out of pocket. They also came to confirm Barry's increasing self-mythologization as a lone artist fighting heroically against a corrupted and unsympathetic artistic establishment. The kind of self-mythologization, which offered an embittered mirror-image of more dominant narratives of artistic celebrity, was to be shared by William Blake . But while the Society of Artists paintings stood as monolithic testaments to Barry's genius, Blake exalted small-scale, handcrafted, and...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the immense assemblage of medieval sources Muratori edited as the Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (25 vols, 1723–51 ). Second place on the scale of importance belongs to his later successor at the *Estense Library , Girolamo Tiraboschi , whose Storia della Letteratura Italiana (10 vols, 1772–82 ) imposed a nonexistent national identity on a very existent literature. The publishing trade revived, bolstered by large-scale printing projects and aided both by the decline of traditional rivals Lyons and Antwerp and by the recession caused in France by the War of...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...laws concerning compulsory school teaching for all children were issued across the region. Local book supplies varied considerably with population density and infrastructure. In most towns, especially along the coasts, books were permanently available (e.g. in the numerous small-scale Danish boroughs with typically 1,000–5,000 inhabitants and between one and four binders selling books). People in southern Scandinavia’s rural areas and along the Norwegian west coast also had frequent contact with urban book markets. Further inland and further north, however,...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and indexed various classes of record at The National Archives (then the Public Record Office) which were too large to be tackled by individuals. It was C. A. Bernau who, on the suggestion of William Blyth Gerish ( 1864–1921 ) and with the cooperation of E. F. Briggs , Gerald Fothergill , F. K. Hitching , and a group of other middle‐class and professional people, founded the Society of Genealogists in the London office of the professional genealogist George Frederick Tudor Sherwood ( 1867–1958 ) in 1911 , ‘to promote, encourage and foster the...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...these have undergone 20th‐century revisions at most scales, with the 25‐inch (1:2 500) plans being revised for many towns in the first two decades of the century and again in the inter‐war period, and with the 50‐inch (1:1 250) plans being introduced from 1911 . For London, revisions to the 1:1 056 series (5 feet to the mile) date from 1906–9 , when the series was extended into Surrey, Middlesex, and Kent. In the late 1930s the London County Council produced its own independent revision at this scale. Some of this material improves in quality as one moves...

The Comedy of Errors

The Comedy of Errors   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,835 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...RSC ( 1974 ), although others have found the play’s dramatization of a broken and uneasily restored family sufficiently compelling (and sufficiently funny) without such assistance, notably Tim Supple’s small-scale, modern-dress production for the RSC ( 1996 ). Lynne Parker’s lavish main-house production for the RSC in 2000 placed emphasis on large-scale pantomimic fun, directing a then-unknown David Tennant as Antipholus of Syracuse in an audience-friendly production, while Nancy Meckler’s 2005 realization for the same company aimed to unsettle through...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Holland and Zeeland: Amsterdam, Haarlem, Leiden, Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Gouda, Delft, and Middelburg. Bringing with them technical skills and commercial expertise, they greatly invigorated the book trade in the north. Apart from immigration—a phenomenon that would recur on a huge scale at the end of the 17 th century when large numbers of Huguenot refugees arrived from France, among them again many printers and booksellers—there were other factors that contributed to the success of printing and bookselling in the Dutch Republic. A loose confederation of seven...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1.4 The Master Gunner of Orléans fires upon a tower from where Talbot and the English have surveyed the French defences. Salisbury is mortally wounded. 1.5–6 Joan disarms Talbot and captures Orléans. The victorious French celebrate her victory on the city walls. 2.1 Using scaling-ladders, Talbot, Bedford, and Burgundy assault Orléans and drive out the French. 2.2–3 Salisbury’s funeral. The Countess of Auvergne invites Talbot to visit her castle, where she tries to take him prisoner, but he secretly forearms himself with a troop of soldiers. 2.4 In the...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...common‐field systems, which is further confirmatory evidence for nucleation because such systems were inappropriate, both spatially and in terms of organization, for a pattern of dispersed settlement. Villages appear to have been created at this time through the small‐scale migration of husbandmen from peripheral settlements within a township towards a central or other suitable site, and through the coalescence of farms and hamlets already existing close to that spot, thus giving some villages a many‐centred, rather formless, appearance, which has...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by Arnold Toynbee ( 1852–83 ) in Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England ( 1884 ) to describe the period of massive industrial change from the middle of the 18th century onwards, and particularly during the two generations from c .1780 . Change was manifest in large‐scale production, steam power, the use of machinery, the employment of large numbers of people under one roof, factory discipline, and the expansion of markets. These changes were associated with †population growth and urbanization. The term was widely used by historians until the last...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was just as at home with European and biblical mythology. The major book publishers during this period were all based in Melbourne: *Robertson , *Mullen , and E. W. *Cole . Several of the larger Melbourne printing firms also became successful publishers. Sands & McDougall, F. F. Bailliere , and Gordon & Gotch all built intercolonial mini-empires based on publishing modest-looking reference books that few could afford to be without. Sands & McDougall’s postal *directories (published from the 1850s to the 1970s ), Gordon & Gotch’s Australian Handbook...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...undertaking was really the brainchild and the obsession of Jean-Claude Richard , abbé de Saint-Non. He visited Italy for the first time in 1759 and the country, and especially Rome, entranced him. He then devoted his life and most of his wealth to ensuring that this large-scale project was completed to his satisfaction. It is far more than a mere topographical record, since the plates are full of drama, including sections devoted to volcanoes—the plate by Robert of Vesuvius erupting in 1779 is especially striking. Some of the plates were engraved after...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...resulted from the lapse of the licensing Act, and it would never again be quite the same force in British publishing. From the late 17 th century onward, many leading publishers avoided relying on the Company to protect their interests; instead, they banded together into smaller-scale, semi-formal trade alliances. Thus, when Richard Royston—who had himself served as Warden and Master of the Company—drew up his will in 1682 , he advised the beneficiaries that new editions of the works to which he held the rights should be undertaken by six or eight members of...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the nation's records, however local in character. Their content is examined in Cecil Sinclair , Tracing Scottish Local History ( 1994 ), which can now be supplemented by a range of online search guides. Equivalents of the English county record offices appeared on a large scale only after local government reorganization in 1974 . The unitary authorities set up in 1995 are the current custodians. Holdings of these and most other archives of interest to local and family researchers were listed in Exploring Scottish History ( 1999 ), now in part...

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