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European Economic and Monetary Union

(EMU) The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank (1999) and a single European currency for participatein states. See feature Economic and Monetary ...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
542 words

... Economic and Monetary Union The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank ( 1998 ) and a single European currency for participating states. Monetary cooperation between the member states of the European Union began in 1979 , with the establishment of the European Monetary System (EMS) , a system of exchange-rate stabilization. The EMS consisted of two main elements: the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) , under which participating countries committed themselves to maintaining the values of their currencies within agreed...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
561 words

... Economic and Monetary Union ( EMU ) The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank ( 1999 ) and a single European currency for participating states. Monetary cooperation between the member states of the European Union began in 1979 , with the establishment of the European Monetary System ( EMS ), a system of exchange-rate stabilization. The EMS consisted of two main elements: the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), under which participating countries committed themselves to maintaining the values of their currencies within...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Economic and Monetary Union ( EMU ) The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank ( 1999 ) and a single European currency for participating states. Monetary cooperation between the member states of the European Union began in 1979 , with the establishment of the European Monetary System (EMS) , a system of exchange-rate stabilization. The EMS consisted of two main elements: the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) , under which participating countries committed themselves to maintaining the values of their currencies...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
167 words

...European Economic and Monetary Union ( EMU ) That part of European integration which, in the context of the European Community ( EC ) as one pillar of the European Union ( EU ), led to the creation of the European common currency, the euro. It consists of the economic and monetary policy objectives and obligations and the institutional framework created by EC Treaty Arts 8 and 98–126 and other legal acts created on that basis, such as the Statute of the European System of Central Banks ( ESCB ) and the European Central Bank ( ECB ). The EMU was...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EMU)The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank (1999) and a single European currency for participatein states. See feature Economic and Monetary Union.
12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

Alexis Weedon

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,076 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...that such monetary crises spurred innovation in publishing. Certainly, many successes arose from experiments begun in economic depression. For example, *Knight and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK) launched the *Library of Useful Knowledge in the turbulent post-Napoleonic era. Each fortnightly issue cost 6 d ., and sales, often to the working or lower-middle classes, sometimes reached 20,000 per issue. Another publisher who profited from economic downturns was *Tegg & Son . It dominated the *remaindering market, and during ...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to World War II, 1901–45 By the 1890s , Australian attitudes to Great Britain and the empire were diverse and complex. A series of crises in the Pacific spurred agitation for political union; fears of French and German expansion were exacerbated by reports of Russian plans to attack Melbourne and Sydney. In 1885 , Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria, and Fiji formed the Federal Council of Australasia. Sir Henry Parkes , the New South Wales premier and former newspaper proprietor, initiated moves towards full political unification in ...

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Other movements and leaders gained members and sympathizers from various social and economic strata. The Qumran community, John the Baptist, and several charismatic leaders in one way or another addressed the spiritual and material needs of the population, by variously promising revolt against Rome, the deity's direct intervention in human affairs, or the assurance of life after death. How individual Judeans and Galileans reacted depended on such issues as personal concerns, economic circumstances, familial responsibilities, and their view of Rome....

European economic integration

European economic integration  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process by which the various countries of Europe are becoming more closely linked, particularly in trade and finance. This is partly the result of natural economic developments: trade has ...
monetary union

monetary union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A group of countries using a single currency. See European Economic and Monetary Union.
European Monetary Institute

European Monetary Institute  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A European organization that was set up to study the problems of organizing a European Central Bank.
green currency

green currency  

The currencies of members of the European Union using artificial rates of exchange for the purposes of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Their object was to protect farm prices in the member ...
European Monetary System

European Monetary System  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EMS)A European organization set up in 1979 to coordinate monetary policy and exchange rates in Europe. Its main activities were running the Exchange Rate Mechanism and planning European Monetary ...
Stability and Growth Pact

Stability and Growth Pact  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Stability and Growth Pact is at the heart of the economic union aspect of Economic and Monetary Union (‘EMU’) in the EU. It is a development of the excessive ...
Delors Report

Delors Report  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A report proposing a single currency and common monetary policy for the European Community (EC). The Report on Economic and Monetary Union in the European Community was published in 1989. It was ...
European Payments Union

European Payments Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(EPU)The original arm of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), formed to look after payments for international trade. In 1958 the EPU was replaced by the European Monetary ...
Economic and Monetary Union

Economic and Monetary Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The creation of a single European currency, the euro, managed by an independent European Central Bank (ECB), and the coordination of economic policies of participating member states which are ...
European Central Bank

European Central Bank  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(ECB)A central bank of the European Union to which member states who have adopted European Monetary Union (EMU) are committed by the Maastricht Treaty. The ECB was set up in 1998 and became active in ...
Council of Ministers

Council of Ministers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Council of the European Union which directly represents the Member Governments, and is the principal decision‐making body that acts on proposals from the European Commission.
convergence criteria

convergence criteria  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The economic tests used to determine whether member states of the European Union are ready to adopt the Euro, as set out in the 1991 Masstricht Treaty. The four principal criteria concern (i) the ...

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