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Europe

Subject: Religion

The name originally stood for central Greece. It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent ...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
106 words

... . The classical term ‘Europe’ was in the Middle Ages displaced by ‘Christendom’, and when ‘Europe’ was revived by the humanists in the late fifteenth century, it was a geographical term used to distinguish the land mass of Europe from those of Asia , Africa , and America rather than, as it became in the nineteenth century, a political and cultural term. The idea of a united Christendom was one of the ideals of the Holy Roman Empire . D. de Rougemont , The Idea of Europe (1966); Peter Burke , ‘Did Europe Exist before 1700?’, in History of European...

Europe

Europe (2)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... (2) , One of the three continents of medieval cartography (HF 1339, II.161; see Maps 1,...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
19 words

... . Literary periodical created in 1923 by a group round Romain Rolland . Its editors have included Guéhenno and Cassou...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... European City of Culture A city in a member state designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year, during which it showcases its cultural life and development. Designed to bring European peoples closer together and highlight Europe’s cultural richness and diversity, the event was launched in 1985 on the initiative of the late Greek Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri , who felt that culture was not given the same prominence as politics and economics within the European Community. Athens was the first European City of Culture, in ...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

R. Bruce Hitchner and Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
342 words

... (Εὑρ&ώπη). The Byz. retained the ancient concept of three continents—Europe, Libya (Africa), and Asia. Since only narrow straits divided Europe from Libya, Theophanes (Theoph. 95.1–2, 426.3–4) considered Spain “the first country of Europe from the West Ocean.” The border between Europe and Asia was more difficult to define. The Bosporos-Hellespont was a natural dividing line; to the north, the Tanais (Don) River was considered a border— Laonikos Chalkokondyles (Chalk. 1:123.6–8) assumed that “the land beyond the Tanais” was larger and wider than Europe....

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
312 words

... The world’s second-smallest but third most populous continent, with around 10 per cent of global population. Europe comprises some 50 nation states and principalities. Just over half are members of the European Union (EU) and most are representative democracies in a political sense. Economically, the countries of northern and western Europe remain the wealthiest per capita (Britain, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden). Except for Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Czech Republic, those countries to the south and east...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
528 words

...( see industrial revolution ). The modern history of Europe is largely that of its constituent nations. In the 20th century European history has been dominated by World War I and World War II . Since the end of World War II the European Community and its successor, the European Union , have brought an altogether more hopeful era to the peoples of Europe...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

Charles Jones

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
121 words

... Europe remains powerful yet ill‐defined. Some of its members—Russia and Turkey—extend beyond its accepted geographical limits. Such unity as it possessed by the early twentieth century rested equivocally upon a shared though divisive Christianity and a rationalist philosophical and scientific tradition (both owing much to the Arab world), a common history of sustained internecine warfare, a fiction of racial homogeneity, and a claim to original responsibility for industrialization and modernity. This tense unity was first effectively projected beyond its...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,774 words

...Europe Islam is currently one of the largest and fastest growing religions in Europe. Over 18 million Muslims live on the continent. Western Europe and southeastern Europe each contain about 9 million Muslims. Smaller Islamic communities have formed in many other European nations, such as Poland and Finland. France has the largest Muslim population in Europe. The 5 million Muslims in that country outnumber both Protestants and Jews. Conquest and Reconquest. Islam has maintained a presence in Europe for over 1,300 years. In the 700s, Muslim armies conquered...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
720 words

...world affairs. After World War 2, the countries of Europe divided into two ideological blocs: Eastern Europe, dominated by the Soviet Union; and Western Europe, closely aligned with the USA ( see Cold War ) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) was established to act as a deterrent to the spread of communism ; the Warsaw Pact was its e European counterpart. Several economic organizations, in particular the European Community ( EC ), worked towards closer intra-national cooperation. The collapse of Soviet communism in 1991 added to the...

Eurōpē

Eurōpē   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
278 words

... The name originally stood for central Greece. It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent and Asia was usually fixed at the river Don. Homer 's range of information hardly extended north of Greece or west of Sicily. The Mediterranean seaboard of Europe was chiefly opened up by the Greeks between c. 750 and c. 550 ( see colonization, greek ). The Atlantic coasts and ‘Tin Islands’ were discovered by the Phoenicians; Pytheas circumnavigated Britain and...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Europe , The second smallest continent is said to be named after Europa. According to Greek mythology, she was the daughter of Agenor, King of Phoenicia, who was carried off to Crete by Zeus, the supreme ruler of the Greek gods. Geographically, it was first mentioned in a Greek poem in the 8th century bc . It applied only to the ‘mainland’, that is, the vast territory to the north of ancient Greek horizons. Around the turn of the first millennium ad , the name Europe was not often used. Indeed, it was rarely used until the late 17th century ; more common...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
549 words

... The name Εὐρώπη originally stood for central Greece ( Hymn. Hom. Ap. 251 , 291 , with N. Richardson's comm., 2010). It was soon extended to the whole Greek mainland, and by 500 bc to the entire land mass behind it. The boundary between the European continent and Asia was usually fixed at the river Don. Homer vaguely knew dark regions of the west and north, but his range of information hardly extended north of Greece or west of Sicily. The Mediterranean seaboard of Europe was chiefly opened up by the Greeks between 800 and 500 bc ( see ...

Europe

Europe   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
48 words

... : A Prophecy A poem by William Blake , printed 1794 at Lambeth, in which he portrays the oppression of Albion during the 1,800‐year sleep of Enitharmon, the female principle, and the approach of the French Revolution, symbolized by her son, the terrible Orc, the spirit of...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
48 words

... : A Prophecy A poem by William Blake , printed 1794 at Lambeth, in which he portrays the oppression of Albion during the 1,800‐year sleep of Enitharmon, the female principle, and the approach of the French Revolution, symbolized by her son, the terrible Orc, the spirit of revolt....

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
263 words

... The continent of Europe was said to have been named from the mythical Europa , although Herodotus found this implausible since she was from Phoenicia and never entered mainland Europe. The name as used by the ancients does not correspond with the modern continent. Not mentioned by Homer, the name is first found in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (seventh century bc ) where it refers to an area in north Greece distinct from the Peloponnese and the Greek islands; by 500 bc it was extended to the land mass behind. Pindar, Herodotus, and his contemporaries...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...cover much of northern Asia. Northwest Europe has a humid temperate climate, but the southern rim of the continent has a Mediterranean climate characterized by mild winters and hot dry summers. The coldest European winters are found in northeastern Scandinavia and northern Russia; the warmest are in the Mediterranean peninsulas. July mean temperatures are above 10°C throughout Europe, except in the extreme north, and reach 20°C to 26°C over large parts of southern Europe. Atmospheric Circulation and Rainfall. European weather and climate develops downstream...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,567 words

... European visitors to the United States were keenly interested in slavery, African Americans, and race relations in America. Few blacks lived in Europe, as slavery had been abolished there, and almost no black Americans visited the Continent. European visitors held a spectrum of opinions about Americans and their customs: some praised qualities like ingenuity and democracy, while others criticized a lack of good manners. Europeans, though, were almost universal in their condemnation of slavery, even as they held a variety of opinions about African...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Ton Hoenselaars

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to appoint the man from Stratford as European Poet Laureate in 2016 . Since the 1980s, interest in Shakespeare as a ‘European’ playwright has grown steadily, with a special focus on his afterlives. Momentous political events—including the demise of Communism ( 1989 ), and the foundation of the European Union ( 1993 )—have challenged traditional perceptions of national culture, prompted original research into the reception of Shakespeare in a federal Europe, and encouraged reflection on a possible sense of pan-European identity, past and present, with...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Riem Spielhaus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,946 words

...immigrated to Europe in smaller numbers than men as workers and mainly subsequently in the course of family reunions and as refugees. Even though the academic and political focus on Muslims in Europe tends to be on immigrant Muslims, a growing number are born there as descendants of converts or offspring of immigrants. Meanwhile research on longstanding populations throughout Europe is gaining momentum, and the concentration on Muslim immigrants has received some criticism as a feature of a limited understanding of Europe as only Western Europe. Structures and...

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