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Eucratides I

(‘the Great’), Graeco-Bactrian king c.170–145bc. His brilliant but warlike reign marked the climax of Greek rule in Bactria(-Sogdiana). Just. Epit. 61. 6. 1–5 compares him to Mithradates ...

Eucratides I

Eucratides I (170–145)   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
351 words

...II or Euthydemus I. Eucratides apparently seized power in Bactria, and then waged wars in Sogdiana, Arachosia, Drangiana, Aria, and finally NW India. His principal adversary was probably King Demetrius I (son of Euthydemus I), though some argue for Demetrius II. After enduring a long siege, Eucratides overcame Demetrius and claimed the territories of Parapamisadae and Gandhara. It is likely that he also defeated the relatives of Demetrius I, including the ephemeral kings Euthydemus II, Agathocles, and Pantaleon. A campaign against Menander I is also possible. ...

Eucratides I

Eucratides I (c.170–145 bc)((‘the Great’))   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
375 words

...(2) I . Eucratides apparently seized power in Bactria, and then waged wars in Sogdiana, Arachosia, Drangiana, Aria, and finally NW India. His principal adversary was probably King Demetrius (8) I (son of Euthydemus I), though some argue for Demetrius (9) II . After enduring a long siege, Eucratides overcame Demetrius and claimed the territories of Parapamisadae and Gandhara . It is likely that he also defeated the relatives of Demetrius I, including the ephemeral kings Euthydemus (3) II , Agathocles, and Pantaleon. A campaign against Menander ( 2 ) I is...

Eucratides I

Eucratides I   Quick reference

Frank L. Holt

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
338 words

... Euthydemus I . Eucratides apparently seized power in Bactria, and then waged wars in Sogdiana, Arachosia, Drangiana, Aria, and finally NW India. His principal adversary was probably King Demetrius I (son of Euthydemus I , though some argue for Demetrius II ). After enduring a long siege, Eucratides overcame Demetrius and claimed the territories of Parapamisadae and Gandhara. It is likely that he also defeated the relatives of Demetrius I , including the ephemeral kings Euthydemus II , Agathocles, and Pantaleon. A campaign against Menander I is also...

Eucratides I

Eucratides I  

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Overview Page
(‘the Great’), Graeco-Bactrian king c.170–145bc. His brilliant but warlike reign marked the climax of Greek rule in Bactria(-Sogdiana). Just. Epit. 61. 6. 1–5 compares him to Mithradates the Great of ...
Demetrius II

Demetrius II  

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Graeco-Bactrian king c. 145–140 bc. Probably a son of Demetrius (8) I, his coins replace the Heracles types of Euthydemus (2) I, Euthydemus (3) II, and Demetrius I with Athena ...
Euthydemus II

Euthydemus II  

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Probably the son of Demetrius (8) I and grandson of Euthydemus (2) I, briefly ruled Bactria c. 170–160 bc. He, along with his relatives Agathocles and Pantaleon, issued the world's ...
Demetrius I

Demetrius I  

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Graeco-Bactrian king c. 186–170 bc. He helped to negotiate a treaty ending the war between his father, Euthydemus (2) I, and Antiochus (3) III; to reward his services, Antiochus betrothed ...
Menander

Menander  

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‘Soter’ (c. 150–130 bc) carried Greek rule (‘Yavana-raja’) in India to its greatest extent. He later embraced Buddhism and remains the only Indo-Greek king remembered in Indian literary sources. Born ...
Ai Khanoum

Ai Khanoum  

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Overview Page
Greek Hellenistic city excavated (1965–78) by the French archaeological delegation in Afghanistan, is situated in the eastern part of Bactria, at the junction of the river Oxus (mod. Amu Darya) ...
Bactria

Bactria  

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An ancient country in central Asia, corresponding to the northern part of modern Afghanistan. Traditionally the home of Zoroaster, it was the seat of a powerful Indo-Greek kingdom in the 3rd and 2nd ...
Demetrius (9) II

Demetrius (9) II (c.145–140 bc)   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
86 words

...(9) II , Graeco - Bactrian king c. 145–140 bc . Probably a son of Demetrius (8) I , his coins replace the Heracles types of Euthydemus (2) I , Euthydemus (3) II , and Demetrius I with Athena holding shield and spear. He briefly ruled part of the Oxus valley after the death of Eucratides I , as hoard evidence shows. Some scholars consider him the ‘rex Indorum’ who was defeated by Eucratides I . O. Bopearachchi , Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques (1991). Frank L....

Euthydemus (3) II

Euthydemus (3) II   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
77 words

...(3) II , probably the son of Demetrius (8) I and grandson of Euthydemus (2) I , briefly ruled Bactria c. 170–160 bc . He, along with his relatives Agathocles and Pantaleon, issued the world's first nickel coinages. It is likely that all were eventually defeated and killed by the usurper Eucratides I . CAH 8 2 (1989), esp. 398 ff.; coin-portrait: N. Davis and C. Kraay, The Hellenistic Kingdoms (1973), 142. Frank L....

Menander

Menander (2) (c.150–130 bc)(‘Soter’)   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
249 words

...of Kalasi (probably near Alexandria (6) , i.e. Alexandria-in-Caucaso, mod. Begram), Menander (‘Milinda’ in Buddhist tradition) was the son and successor of an unnamed king. He conquered the Punjab and made Sagala (Sialkot?) his capital. Then, according to both Indian and Greek sources, he advanced deep into the heart of India and probably reached Palibothra (Patna) in the Ganges valley. This campaign may have been aborted due to the civil wars in Bactria and NW India associated with the rise of Eucratides I , whose assassination in c. 145 left...

Demetrius (8) I

Demetrius (8) I (c.186–170 bc)   Reference library

Frank L. Holt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
165 words

...a title later echoed by Chaucer in ‘The Knight's Tale’. He succeeded his father as king of this enlarged empire in c. 186 , but his reign was probably cut short by the rise of the usurper Eucratides I . He is distinguished from his probable son, Demetrius (9) II , by coin-type. O. Bopearachchi , Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques ( 1991 ). Frank L....

Bactria

Bactria   Reference library

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
379 words

...In the reign of Eucratides I , people from beyond the Oxus invaded Bactria and destroyed the city of Ai Khanoum c. 145 bc . At the end of Heliocles’ reign ( c. 130 bc ), another invasion virtually obliterated the Greek presence in Bactria. Pierre Briant / Amélie...

Ai Khanoum

Ai Khanoum   Reference library

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
267 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the 4th cent. or in the early 3rd cent. bc , in an area where there had been earlier settlement, as indicated by an irrigation system and an Achaemenid fortress. Ai Khanoum passed from Seleucid control to that of the so-called Indo-Bactrian kings, certainly by the reign of Eucratides I ( c .172–155 bc) of Bactria. In c . the mid-2nd cent. bc it was destroyed by invasions from the Saca tribes. The buildings discovered include administrative quarters, a temenos (sacred precinct), a gymnasium , a theatre, several rich private dwellings, a citadel where a...

Bactria

Bactria   Reference library

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
499 words

...supremacy. In the reign of Eucratides I , people from beyond the Oxus invaded Bactria and destroyed the city of Ai Khanoum c. 145 bc . At the end of Heliocles' reign ( c. 130 bc ), another invasion virtually obliterated the Greek presence in Bactria. P. Briant , L'Asie Centrale et les royaumes proche-orientaux (1984); P. Bernard , Fouilles d'Aï-Khanum 4 (1985); S. Sherwin-White and A. Kuhrt , From Samarkhand to Sardis (1993); cf. Topoi: Orient-Occident 1994; J. Rea and others, ZPE 104 (1994), 261 ff.; B. Lyonnet, Prospections...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,154 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Diodotid dynasty. When King Antiochus III attempted to reassert Seleucid power in Central Asia at the end of the century, Euthydemus I of Bactria prevailed by enduring a long siege at Bactra ( 208–206 bce ) and warning Antiochus of a pending nomadic invasion by the Sakas (Polybius 10.49 and 11.34). Antiochus conceded the royal title to Euthydemus and marched away. Some fifty years later, during the reign of Eucratides I the Great, the Sakas did invade Sogdiana while the once-nomadic Parthians encroached upon western Bactria. Greek rule in Central Asia...

coinage, Greek

coinage, Greek   Reference library

N. K. Rutter

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,065 words
Illustration(s):
1

...An issue of Pergamum ( ad 180–92) adroitly couples the suckling of its mythical founder Telephus, son of Heracles , with a portrait of Commodus , the new Hercules (Roman Heracles). Professor Stephen Mitchell, Dr O.v. Vacano, and Collection H.I. ( c ) Kings used coins to present the royal image. Here Eucratides I of Bactria appears as a warleader and claims the title Great King ( Megas Basileus ). East ...

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