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Estrada Doctrine

The doctrine that recognition of a government should be based on its de facto existence, rather than on its legitimacy. It is named after Don Genero Estrada, the Mexican Secretary of ...

Estrada doctrine

Estrada doctrine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
86 words

...Estrada doctrine The doctrine that recognition of a government should be based on its de facto existence, rather than on its legitimacy. It is named after Don Genero Estrada , the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs who in 1930 ordered that Mexican diplomats should issue no declarations that amounted to a grant of recognition: he felt that this was an insulting practice and offended against the sovereignty of other nations. In 1980 the UK, USA, and many other states adopted the Estrada doctrine. Compare Tobar doctrine...

Estrada Doctrine

Estrada Doctrine   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
276 words

... Doctrine A doctrine of recognition of governments declared by Don Genaro Estrada , Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico, and published on 27 September 1930 . According to the doctrine, recognition ‘which allows foreign governments to pass upon the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the régime existing in another country … is an insulting practice and … offends the sovereignty of other nations’. Estrada instructed Mexican diplomats to issue ‘no declarations in the sense of grants of recognition’. For text of the Estrada Doctrine in English, see 25...

Estrada Doctrine

Estrada Doctrine  

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Overview Page
The doctrine that recognition of a government should be based on its de facto existence, rather than on its legitimacy. It is named after Don Genero Estrada, the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs ...
Tobar doctrine

Tobar doctrine  

Reference type:
Overview Page
This is a doctrine of non-recognition of governments first enunciated by Carlos Tobar, the Minister of Foreign Relations of Ecuador, in March 1907, and subsequently adopted into two treaties ...
executive certificate

executive certificate  

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Overview Page
‘At common law it is the practice of English courts to accept as conclusive statements by or on behalf of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs relating ...
modes of recognition

modes of recognition  

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Overview Page
(1) Express declaration. There are many instances in which a new State or government has been expressly recognized as such in explicit terms, whether in direct communication, public announcement, ...
recognition

recognition  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N. (in international law)1 The process by which one state declares that another political entity fulfils the conditions of statehood (see state) and that it is willing to deal with it as a member of ...
Tobar doctrine

Tobar doctrine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
108 words

...World War II, the USA and many other states have favoured the more pragmatic Estrada doctrine...

Tobar doctrine

Tobar doctrine   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
182 words

...have not constitutionally reorganized the country’: art. II of the 1923 Treaty. Costa Rica and El Salvador denounced the 1923 Treaty in 1932 and 1933 , respectively. The doctrine for a time affected the practice of the five Central American Republics, and the United States: see McMahon , Recent Changes in the Recognition Policy of the U.S. ( 1933 ). See also Estrada Doctrine...

executive certificate

executive certificate   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
358 words

...tendered. But the ‘certificate’, as thus broadly understood, has been employed with reference to the following types of questions: (1) whether a foreign State has been recognized by the Crown or a foreign government recognized either de jure or de facto (but cf. now Estrada Doctrine ), (2) whether a particular territory is under the sovereignty of one foreign State or another, (3) as to the status of a foreign government or State as sovereign or otherwise, (4) as to the status of property the subject-matter of claims by foreign States or...

recognition

recognition ((in international law))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
504 words

...The significance of the distinction (which is of little legal consequence) therefore depends on the intention of the recognizing government. Recognition may be express or implied (for example, by entering into diplomatic relations with a new government). See also Estrada doctrine ; Tobar doctrine . For purposes of English municipal law, the question of whether or not a state is recognized is sometimes relevant. Thus: (1) only a recognized state is entitled to sovereign immunity from jurisdiction; (2) an unrecognized state cannot sue in English courts; and...

recognition, modes of

recognition, modes of   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
557 words

...has been to de-emphasize and avoid the use of recognition in cases of changes of governments and to concern ourselves with the question of whether we wish to have diplomatic relations with the new governments’: 77 State Dept. Bull. 462 ( 1977 ) . See also Estrada Doctrine ; Tobar doctrine . (3) Collective recognition. Though normally recognition of a new State or government is, expressly or by implication, the individual act of the government of another State, instances of collective recognition, by treaty or express declaration, are numerous, as...

Central American-American Feminisms

Central American-American Feminisms   Reference library

Yajaira M. Padilla

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Prudencia Ayala, and Leticia Hernández-Linares in Conversation.” In U.S. Central Americans: Reconstructing Memories, Struggles, and Communities of Resistance , edited by Karina O. Alvarado , Alicia Ivonne Estrada , and Ester E. Hernández , 98–121. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2017. Alvarado, Karina O. , Alicia Ivonne Estrada , and Ester E. Hernández , eds. U.S. Central Americans: Reconstructing Memories, Struggles, and Communities of Resistance . Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Garcia-Rojas, Claudia . “(Un)Disciplined futures:...

Méndez v. Westminster

Méndez v. Westminster   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,078 words

...of Mexican descent. Méndez refused to enroll his children into the segregated Hoover School, and after numerous failed attempts at reconciliation with the school district, he decided to gather support and pursue legal remedies. Méndez, William Guzman , Frank Palomino , Thomas Estrada , and Lorenzo Ramirez , with the support of the League of Latin American Citizens ( LULAC ), sued four local Orange County school districts, Westminster, Santa Ana, Garden Grove, and El Modena, for segregating their children, thereby denying them equal protection under the...

Méndez v. Westminster

Méndez v. Westminster   Reference library

Tanya Katerí Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,141 words

...of Mexican descent. Méndez refused to enroll his children into the segregated Hoover School, and after numerous failed attempts at reconciliation with the school district, he decided to gather support and pursue legal remedies. Méndez, William Guzman, Frank Palomino, Thomas Estrada, and Lorenzo Ramirez, with the support of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), sued four local Orange County school districts, Westminster, Santa Ana, Garden Grove, and El Modena, for segregating their children, thereby denying them equal protection under the...

Q'eqchi'

Q'eqchi'   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,396 words

...Salvador, 1979. Most comprehensive overview of Q'eqchi' cosmology. Carter, William E. New Lands and Old Traditions: Kekchi Cultivators in the Guatemalan Lowlands . Gainesville, Fla., 1969. Study of agricultural knowledge and practices among highland settlers in the lowlands. Estrada Munroy, Agustín . El mundo k'ekchi' de la Vera-Paz . Guatemala, 1979. Traces various sources on the colonial history of the Q'eqchi'. King, Arden . Cobán and the Verapaz: History and Culture Process in Northern Guatemala . Middle American Research Institute, Publication 37. New...

Chávez, César (1927–1993) – and the United Farm Workers

Chávez, César (1927–1993) – and the United Farm Workers   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,347 words

...César (1927–1993) – and the United Farm Workers César Estrada Chávez initiated a dynamic process of labor strikes, demonstrations, and boycott strategies that intertwined religious traditions, civil rights, and environmental justice. His lifelong efforts to address injustices against Mexicano farm workers centered on his founding the first successful farm workers' union in U.S. history: the United Farm Workers Association, known today as the United Farm Workers Union, AFL-CIO. From his upbringing as a migrant farm worker, Chávez observed labor...

Sousa, João da Cruz e

Sousa, João da Cruz e (1861–1898)   Reference library

Maria José Barbosa

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,246 words

..., and Cidade do Rio ). He established permanent residence in Rio de Janeiro, capital of the young Brazilian Republic, in 1890 and, a year later, met Gavita Rosa Gonçalves, an educated, freed woman ( liberta ). They married in 1893 , and Cruz e Sousa secured a job with the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil, a major railway company, as a filing clerk. His life had become increasingly difficult by 1897 : two of his four children had died of tuberculosis; he suffered from the same debilitating disease, endured his wife’s temporary mental illness, and lived...

Portuguese-speaking African theatre

Portuguese-speaking African theatre   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,414 words

... agitprop theatre became the vogue, giving birth to new plays such as Un minuto de silencio (‘One minute of silence’) and Na machamb de Maria – sabado as tres de tarde (‘On Maria's small farm – Saturday afternoon, three o'clock’, 1975 ) by Orlando Mendes , and A estrada (‘The road’, 1979 ) by Leite Vasconcelos . Others are O destino: inimigo do povo (‘Destiny: an enemy of the people’) by a workers' collective and A Communa (‘The commune’, 1979 ) by the railway workers and the students of Eduardo Mondlane University. Theatre projects...

Energy Regulation

Energy Regulation   Reference library

Lynne Kiesling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,406 words

...except for the United States and Russia and other Caspian countries. Before 1955 natural gas represented less than 1 percent of total energy consumption in western Europe, largely owing to high transportation costs and the capital requirements of pipeline construction ( Estrada et al., 1988, p. 9 ). U.S. federal regulatory involvement in the natural gas industry began with the Natural Gas Act of 1938 , after the states unsuccessfully attempted to regulate interstate pipelines in violation of the interstate commerce clause of the Constitution. Federal...

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