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establishment of the port

Subject: History

The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the ...

skateboarding

skateboarding  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An individual sport in which the boarder balances on a board that is attached to wheels, and performs a range of physical manoeuvres of, at a competitive level, increasingly acrobatic and ...
King's Book of Sports

King's Book of Sports  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Declarations by James I, and Charles I, kings of England, relating to the permissibility of sports on Sundays. James I issued a royal proclamation in 1618, reissued by Charles I in 1633, authorizing ...
managerial revolution

managerial revolution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A concept which points to the supposed shift within the modern corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of ...
cultural contestation

cultural contestation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process whereby values and meanings of social actions are disputed, rather than merely accepted, often referring to aspects of class struggle. Karl Marx said nothing about sport or its ...
UEFA

UEFA  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(Union des Associations Européennes de Football;The governing body of European football. The acronym has come to be pronounced in two syllables—as in the English word ‘wafer’—in continental Europe, ...
structural differentiation

structural differentiation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A concept associated with evolutionary theories of history and with structural functionalism. Societies are seen as moving from the simple to the complex via a process of social change based on ...
James S. Coleman

James S. Coleman  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1926–95)A much honoured American sociologist, prolific author and co-author of numerous monographs and scholarly papers (some 28 books and more than 300 articles), who was for much of his ...
penology

penology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
75 words

...The study of the management and punishment of criminals. The term is associated with the 19th-century movement in penal reform, which redefined prisons as correctional rather than retributive establishments, and at that time described a large number of interested parties (including reformers and lawyers) and a discrete debate. However, in its contemporary usage it normally refers to specific sociological or criminological studies of punishment and deterrence, rather than a separate intellectual or academic...

managerial revolution

managerial revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
132 words

...revolution A concept that points to the supposed shift within the modern corporation from the owner to the professional manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of family ownership and private property in contemporary capitalism . The concept originates in a book of that title by James Burnham ( 1941 ) who asserted that not only industrial establishments but state agencies and all other significant organizations would become dominated by a new ruling class of managerial professionals pursuing their own...

Janowitz, Morris

Janowitz, Morris (1919–88)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
147 words

... American sociologist , student at Chicago University in the mid-1940s, then Professor in a number of North American departments. He was the author of numerous books, including The Professional Soldier (1946) , Sociology and the Military Establishment (1959) , Social Control of the Welfare State (1976) , The Last Half-Century (1978) , and The Reconstruction of Patriotism (1983). Janowitz will be remembered as probably the leading sociologist of the military, and for his argument that the transition from early to advanced industrial society created...

welfare state

welfare state   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
182 words

...referring to a form of capitalist society in which the state takes responsibility for a range of measures intended to ensure the well-being of its members, through providing education for children, access to health care, financial support for periods out of the labour market, and so on. It gained currency in Britain and internationally in the late 1940s following the post-war establishment of a range of British public welfare systems ( see Beveridge Report ). Welfare states differ widely, however, in the ways in which they make such provision: for example,...

Beveridge Report

Beveridge Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
661 words

...the publication of a Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services , the fruits of a committee chaired by Sir William Beveridge and subsequently known as The Beveridge Report. The report was enthusiastically received, selling 635 000 at two shillings each in the days following its release. This report came to be regarded as the blueprint of the British welfare state and continues to be invoked as a way of summarizing the post-war settlement and the establishment of the British welfare state, among both sociologists and politicians. In fact, though, the...

colonialism

colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
257 words

...The establishment by more developed countries of formal political authority over areas of Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America. It is distinct from spheres of influence, indirect forms of control, semi-colonialism , and neo-colonialism . Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the 19th century. It was usually (but not necessarily) accompanied by the settling of White populations in these...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
392 words

...during the Roman occupation. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 ce , Christianity became increasingly a religion of Gentiles, partly as a consequence of the preaching of the apostle Paul and his establishment of Gentile churches. In Rome, these Christian groups became the targets of political repression, especially under Nero. This persecution resulted in new institutions of martyrdom and sainthood. Although Christianity spread among the lower classes, it eventually won favour among the powerful, and in 313 ce , Constantine established it as the...

natural law

natural law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
322 words

...for the social contract, and so for the establishment of political authority. Since the 18th century, legal theory has tended to be hostile to the notion of natural law—the conventional, socially and historically formed character of law being more commonly emphasized. However, the increase in moral authority attaching to human rights since the Second World War owes much to the natural law tradition. The idea of the natural world as created by God, and so being subject (like human society) to God’s authority, led to the metaphorical extension of the notion...

criminology

criminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
372 words

...economy of society. The related sociology of law may be interested in the processes of making and breaking laws and in issues such as proportionality—making the punishment fit the crime. During the 1960s and early 1970s, a sociology of deviance developed as a source of sociological opposition to the law-enforcement and establishment-orientation or traditional criminology, and as an epistemological critique of unquestioned assumptions about what constitutes crime. The approach placed crime within a wider framework of forms of deviance such as mental illness,...

structural differentiation

structural differentiation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
371 words

...the Transformation of Societies , 1978 ). Talcott Parsons sees the process as involving three stages: a process of differentiation; a process of adaptation and reintegration; and, finally, the establishment of a more general system of values which holds the more complex society together. The impetus towards differentiation comes from the need for a society to adapt to its physical and social environment. The basic evolutionary idea can be found in Herbert Spencer , is developed and applied to a particular instance by Neil Smelser ( Social Change in the...

professions

professions   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
337 words

...entails exclusive concern with the intrinsic rewards and performance of a task, and is typically associated with personal services involving confidentiality and high trust , as found for example in medicine, education, religion and the law. In the mainstream of the sociology of work and organizations, professionalism is contrasted with bureaucracy, and the so-called bureaucratic mentality. Recent sociological work has tended to view professionalization as the establishment of effective interest-group control over clients with socially constructed problems as...

Locke, John

Locke, John (1632–1702)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
436 words

...analysis of the sources and limits of private property rights, in a world initially held in common by humankind. Since all individuals are held to be owners of their own persons, the mixing of their labour with some part of the material world gives them property rights in what they produce. However, this is so only on condition that what they take does not go to waste, and that enough remains for others. The institution of money (whose establishment, like governmental power, Locke takes to have been a matter of voluntary agreement) allows for the transfer of...

Hobbes, Thomas

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
438 words

...of death and desire for power. If we imagine humans living in a ‘state of nature’ prior to the establishment of any law or political power to keep them ‘in awe’, each individual, lacking any reason for expecting goodwill from the others, will be caught up in a restless pursuit of ever more power. In such a situation, the desire for security on the part of each individual must issue in perpetual antagonism and instability, a state in which (to use Hobbes's famous phrase) life would be ‘solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’. But humans are possessed of...

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