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establishment of the port

Subject: History

The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the ...

Ernst Tugendhat

Ernst Tugendhat  

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Philosophy
(1930– ).One of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. ...
Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi

Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1923–99)Mehdi Ha'iri-Yazdi grew up in a distinguished family in Iran, and like them became a part of the religious establishment in the country. He was born in Qom in ...
Professionalization of Philosophy

Professionalization of Philosophy  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Professionalization of philosophy, broadly conceived, might be understood to cover the development of philosophical education, the fostering of philosophic interests and the establishment of formal ...
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(b. 8 Sept. 1864, d. 21 June 1929).British Liberal theorist Born at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, he was educated at Marlborough and Oxford. He taught philosophy at Oxford (1890–7), publishing his ...
William Harvey

William Harvey  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1578–1657),practised medicine in London and became influential in the College of Physicians. Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood was announced in De motu cordis (1628; English trans. ...
William Warburton

William Warburton  

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Philosophy
(1698–1779),rose to be bishop of Gloucester in 1759. He was much engaged in theological controversy, writing with vigour and arrogance. He was author of The Divine Legation of Moses (1738–41), A View ...
Rogers, John

Rogers, John (1679–1729)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
117 words

...he became Sub-Dean of Wells and, from 1726 , Chaplain in Ordinary to the Prince of Wales. His principal works discuss the relationship between the temporal and spiritual powers of the Church, and strongly defend the former. Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists ( 1727 ) is a response to Anthony Collins . Bibliography A Discourse of the Visible and Invisible Church of Christ (1719). Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists (1727). A Vindication of the Civil Establishment of Religion ...

Encyclopaedists

Encyclopaedists   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
163 words

...effort to bring the fruits of human learning together into a single publication. Under the editorship of Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert , this ‘encyclopaedia’ was intended as both a concise summation of all theoretical knowledge, and a practical manual of concrete ‘how-to-do-it’ advice of use to every worker in his shop. It also contained, through a complex system of ironic, and often irreverent, ‘cross-references’, a surreptitious challenge to the traditional authority of the Catholic Church, and to the political establishment as well. Publication...

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich (1853–1900)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
164 words

...reintegration. The world of spatio-temporal objects was created when Sophia, or the world-soul, separated from God. Reintegration requires the establishment of ‘all-unity’: the reuniting of the world with God in a kingdom of heaven on earth. For a time, Solovyov envisioned a theocratic utopia with all Churches and nations united under the Pope and the Russian Tsar. His later philosophy is more contemplative and less dogmatic, though prey to pessimism. Solovyov inspired a significant revival in Russian religious philosophy and influenced the Russian symbolist...

Grosseteste, Robert

Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170–1253)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
152 words

...which itself is strongly influenced by Platonic and biblical ideas, he placed the concept of light at the centre of his metaphysics, and also at the centre of his epistemology, where he gives an account of human understanding in terms of natural, and ultimately divine, illumination. Grosseteste also composed numerous scientific treatises, being one of a small but growing band who recognized the importance of experiment in the establishment of scientific truth. He was a pioneer in the Christian West as a translator of Aristotle from Greek into Latin. Prof....

Tugendhat, Ernst

Tugendhat, Ernst (1930– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
213 words

...of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. Tugendhat, born in Brno as a Jew, emigrated to Venezuela, received his BA at Stanford 1949 , his Ph.D. in Freiburg 1956 , and his Habilitation in Tübingen 1966 . He has held professorships in Heidelberg, Starnberg, and Berlin. Trained by Heidegger in the Aristotelian and phenomenological tradition, he argues in an original way that analytic philosophy of language is the...

Renaissance philosophy

Renaissance philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
322 words

...by figures such as Cajetan, de Vitoria, and Suarez, most Renaissance writers regarded the medievals as idle sophisters writing a Latin that appeared barbaric by comparison with the courtly version contrived by Cicero . Throughout the Renaissance, works by classical philosophers were retranslated and new commentaries were produced. This led to the establishment of revivalist schools, the most important of which was the Neoplatonic academy in Florence founded by Ficino under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici . Prof. John Haldane See also Aristotelianism ; ...

Serbian philosophy

Serbian philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
308 words

...the foundation of Belgrade University in 1863 , Serbian philosophy gained a reputation through the work of Branislav Petronijević , whose articles were later cited as authoritative in such works as Lee's Zeno of Elea (Cambridge, 1936 ) and Boyer's The Concepts of the Calculus (New York, 1939 ). 1940s–1960s. The philosophical tradition was dismantled in post-war Yugoslavia by the communist regime. The official establishment of ‘humanist Marxism’ followed the 1953 ideological cleansing of ‘dogmatists’. The critical attitude of members of the...

Dawson, Benjamin

Dawson, Benjamin (1729–1814)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
295 words

...wrote against Rutherforth 's views on subscription, arguing that though the Scriptures were infallible man was not and hence the imposition of articles of faith was improper. In later life he turned to English philology. Bibliography An Examination of Dr. Rutherforth's Arguments Respecting the Right of Protestant Churches to require the Clergy to Subscribe to an Established Confession (1766). An Examination of an Essay on Establishments in Religion (1767). The Necessitarian: or The Question concerning Liberty and Necessity Stated and Discussed (1783)....

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances (1786–1858)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
321 words

...in Kent, on 8 January 1858 . The younger daughter of a country rector, she was a bookish and precocious child (apparently a poet and essayist at seven years old) who overcame ill-health to educate herself on a polymathic scale. She learnt Latin, Greek and Hebrew, as well as several modern languages; and in time she became adept also in history, politics, law, science and philosophy. Education itself, however, was her particular interest, and she campaigned hard both for the entry of women into universities and for the establishment of so-called ‘ragged...

Heywood, Samuel

Heywood, Samuel (1753–1828)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,753 words

...accepted Paley 's argument for establishment based on expediency – but his view of the state was entirely secular, and he only excluded from complete toleration, that is from the full rights of citizenship, those whose religious tenets conjoined with ‘dangerous political dispositions’. He believed, following Paley, that it was possible to reconcile ‘the progress of truth , with the peace of society; the right of private judgement, with the care of the public safety’ (p. 111). Essentially he appealed to the enlightenment of fellow citizens, but his ideas too...

Arnold, Thomas

Arnold, Thomas (1795–1842)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
734 words

...that differed from his contemporaries on several issues: the relationship between church and state, and church reform; the legitimacy of government, the role of consent and the nature of political authority; and the role of property in the political system. These issues were woven into his views on the overall theme of the ‘gradual’ political maturity of the Christian citizen in his church state. Arnold's theory provided a defence of the Anglican Church as the establishment best suited to act as the national church, and a rationale for church reform to render...

Duncan, Alexander

Duncan, Alexander (1708–95)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
401 words

...of God , the immortality of the soul, the duties of morality and the necessity of divine revelation are, to be sure, conventional and unphilosophical – God exists because He must and because it is impossible to conceive of His not existing. While Duncan takes an a priori, rationalistic attitude towards theological and metaphysical questions, his arguments for the observation of Christian moral practices and the retention of the establishment and authority of Christianity are strictly empirical: ‘the present existence of the Christian religion in the world is...

Banks, Joseph

Banks, Joseph (1743–1820)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
463 words

...of colonial policy. Banks became, in later life, a central figure in the British scientific establishment, advising King George III on the development of Kew Gardens as a centre of botanical research, and becoming President of the Royal Society. Banks' presidency undoubtedly coincided with a low point in the Society's scientific fortunes: for Banks and like-minded gentlemen amateurs, Linnaeus rather than Newton was the guiding light in science. This domination of the Society by amateurs with primarily botanical interests was not Banks' doing, but...

Saltmarsh, John

Saltmarsh, John (d. 1647)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
450 words

... ( d. 1647 ) The time and circumstances of John Saltmarsh 's birth are unknown as are the details of his family and childhood. He attended Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took his MA, and most likely his BA, although there is no record of either. In 1639 he left Oxford to become rector of Heslerton, Yorkshire. At the outset of his clerical career he supported the ecclesiastical establishment, but he soon became disillusioned with it and was attracted increasingly to the radical religious and political views that were gaining ascendancy in the conflict...

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