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Electoral Supervision

Most would agree that democracy is the “fundamental standard of political legitimacy in the current era” (Held, p. xi). Elections are the hallmark—the essential procedural minimum—of ...

Electoral Supervision

Electoral Supervision   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,367 words

...in recent years electoral supervision has become a key feature—and sometimes an essential one—for many societies, especially in transitional countries (those recovering from armed conflict or dictatorship). This entry will explore the background and normative context of electoral supervision, the types of supervision that take place, the actors involved in international electoral supervision, and some debates and controversies connected with this topic, including issues of timing, the regulation of electoral systems, and the supervision of elections in...

Electoral Supervision

Electoral Supervision  

Most would agree that democracy is the “fundamental standard of political legitimacy in the current era” (Held, p. xi). Elections are the hallmark—the essential procedural minimum—of democracy. They ...
Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...established to supervise the local administration of the New Poor Law was only the first of a whole series of boards designed to shadow local government, either compelling local authorities to implement new statutory provisions (often by offering grants in aid) or attempting to restrain them from profligate expenditure (a theme as much of the 1820s and 1830s as of the 1980s and 1990s). And despite the Victorian commitment to laissez‐faire, it quickly became obvious that both industry and the privately owned infrastructure needed to be supervised. Again, the...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Crown ( 1776 ), and (more gradually) on the freedom of contract. Indeed, the centrality of individualistic rights to politics and the constitution in eighteenth-century England ensured that sensitive political and constitutional issues (for example the questions of personal, electoral, and press freedom raised by the *Wilkites in the 1760s and 1770s) were still frequently fought out in the courts rather than in parliament. So while formal constitutional principle meant that the courts were ultimately vulnerable to the assumption of positive sovereignty by...

majority-minority districting

majority-minority districting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries must where possible create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority (hence, ...
Colegrove v. Green

Colegrove v. Green  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
328 U.S. 549 (1946), argued 7–8 Mar. 1946, decided 10 June 1946 by vote of 4 to 3; Frankfurter for the Court, Black in dissent, Jackson not participating (Stone's death left one vacancy). Qualified ...
Saturninus

Saturninus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Of praetorian family and a good popular orator, as quaestor at Ostia (probably 105 bc) was superseded in his cura annonae (office of supervising the food supply) by Scaurus and turned against the ...
one-party state

one-party state  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Those states where a single party is accorded a legal or de facto monopoly of formal political activity. This may be enforced under the constitution, or it may be a consequence of denying rival ...
Colegrove v. Green

Colegrove v. Green   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
233 words

...by the continuing inaction of state legislatures, the Court declared in Baker v. Carr ( 1962 ) that apportionment issues were cognizable under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. This action set the stage for later decisions requiring approximate equality of electoral districts. John R....

Colegrove v. Green

Colegrove v. Green   Reference library

John R. Vile

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
239 words

...the continuing inaction of state legislatures, the Court declared in Baker v. Carr ( 1962 ) that apportionment issues were cognizable under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. This action set the stage for later decisions requiring approximate equality of electoral districts. See also Political Questions ; Reapportionment Cases . John R....

majority-minority districting

majority-minority districting   Quick reference

Paul Martin

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
363 words

...districting A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries must where possible create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority (hence, majority-minority districts). In the US, such districts are required by the Voting Rights Act as amended in 1982 . Section 2 of the Act includes language designed to prevent dilution of representation for minority groups, and to protect their ability to ‘elect representatives of their choice’, although not a right to proportional representation for...

La Roche, Sophie von

La Roche, Sophie von (1731–1807)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
373 words

...von La Roche , an illegitimate son of Count Stadion ( 1691–1768 ), whose family estates La Roche supervised until 1771 . When in 1766 Frau von La Roche's daughters were sent to boarding school at Strasburg, the mother extricated herself from a crisis of desolation by writing a novel, the Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim , which was published by Wieland in 1771 . In that year La Roche received an administrative appointment from the Electoral Archbishop of Trier, for which the family moved to Ehrenbreitstein opposite Koblenz. Here Goethe...

aediles

aediles   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
364 words

...to the corn prefect and other officials. An important aspect of the urban administration was the public games ( ludi ). Here the growth of wealth and political rivalry in the later republic encouraged the aediles to spend an increasing amount of their own money to gain electoral advantage. The Ludi Romani and Megalenses fell to the curules, the Ludi Ceriales and Plebeii to the plebeians. Augustus, however, transferred the games to the praetors. Under Caesar's dictatorship and the Principate the aediles lost most of their quasi‐police functions,...

Cocos Islands

Cocos Islands   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
359 words
Illustration(s):
1

...came under Australian control in 1955 . In 1978 , the Australian government purchased most of the land owned by the Clunies-Ross family and distributed it to the islanders. In 1984 , in a UN-supervised referendum they voted to become a part of Australia. There is a non-resident Australian administrator as well as a seven-seat shire council, and it is an electoral division of Western Australia. See also Country data table http://www.shire.cc/en/ Shire of Cocos official site ...

Hayes, Rutherford B.

Hayes, Rutherford B.   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,227 words

...states had 20 electoral votes—enough for Hayes to win the White House. Hayes believed that many African Americans had been intimidated from voting and that fraud had been committed. In South Carolina, for example, the number of votes counted was larger than the state's population. The Republican Senate and Democratic House created a 15-member electoral commission to examine the returns from these states and to certify which electoral votes—Democratic or Republican—it would accept as valid. The commission awarded all 20 of the contested electoral votes from...

Zia, Khaleda

Zia, Khaleda (b. 1945)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
457 words

...Following mass protests, a constitutional amendment allowing for the formation of a neutral body or temporary caretaker government that would supervise all subsequent national elections was introduced. Under the first caretaker government, Zia's main rival, Sheikh Hasina of the Awami League, swept into power. In 2001 the BNP was reelected with Zia at the helm. The government was scathingly criticized for its electoral alliance with the Jamaat-i-Islami ( JI ), a party that actively opposed the independence of Bangladesh. This alliance was also blamed for...

aediles

aediles   Reference library

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew William Lintott

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
530 words

...to the praefectus annonae and other officials. An important aspect of the urban administration was the public games ( ludi ). Here the growth of wealth and political rivalry in the later republic encouraged the aediles to spend an increasing amount of their own money to gain electoral advantage. The ludi Romani and the Megalensia fell to the curules , the ludi Ceriales and Plebeii to the plebeians. Augustus, however, transferred the games to the praetors. Under Caesar's dictatorship and the Principate the aediles lost most of their quasi-police...

Saturninus

Saturninus   Quick reference

Ernst Badian

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
496 words

... proletarii (poor citizens normally exempt from military service). Re-elected tribune for 99, he hoped to have Glaucia as consul, but Marius, now suspicious of their ambitions, rejected Glaucia's candidacy as illegal. After having Memmius, a hostile candidate, murdered in the electoral assembly, Saturninus, by massive use of force in the concilium plebis (plebeian assembly), tried to pass a law allowing Glaucia's candidacy. In the resulting riot, the senate, on the motion of the princeps senatus (first senator) Scaurus, passed the senatus consultum...

Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation

Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation (1948)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
560 words

...jobs when they married—illustrating that as society changes so do the values law protects). While a close study of the context suggests strongly that the upper class councillors tried to snatch a partial victory for their religious objection to Sunday cinema from the jaws of electoral defeat at the hands of the predominantly plebeian electors, the Court refused to see it that way and simply asserted that the physical and moral (including religious) well‐being of the children were proper considerations for the local authority to take into account. The case...

one‐party states

one‐party states   Quick reference

Ian Campbell and Richard Coggins

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
814 words

...constitutions and supervising free and open elections. By this means incumbent rulers were forced to quit in Benin, Congo, Niger, and eventually Madagascar. In Algeria the transition from a one‐party state, under the Front de Libération Nationale (National Liberation Front), was already well advanced until the military intervened to reverse the process, fearing a landslide victory by the Islamic opposition party, Front Islamique du Salut (Islamic Salvation Front). In Zimbabwe, President Robert Mugabe’s unwillingness to recognize the electoral success of the...

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