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Ebenezer Howard

(1850–1928). Howard, born in London, made a modest living as a shorthand writer and his importance was as a pioneer of the garden city movement. He believed that unrestricted ...

Howard, Ebenezer

Howard, Ebenezer (1850–1928)   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
146 words

..., Ebenezer ( 1850–1928 ) . Howard , born in London, made a modest living as a shorthand writer and his importance was as a pioneer of the garden city movement. He believed that unrestricted private development of towns must lead to squalor and the communities which he advocated in his book Garden Cities of Tomorrow ( 1898 , 1902 ) were to be owned by trustees, carefully planned, and surrounded by a green belt. He founded the Garden City Association in 1899 and the planning and development of Letchworth in Hertfordshire began in 1903 . In 1919 he...

Howard, Sir Ebenezer

Howard, Sir Ebenezer (1850–1928)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
223 words

..., Sir Ebenezer ( 1850–1928 ) English begetter of the Garden-City movement. Inspired by Edward Bellamy ’s (1850–98) Utopian book Looking Backward 2000–1887 (1888) which prophesied a transformation of society in an industrial age made possible by co-operative ventures, he wrote To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898), later republished as Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1902). Howard envisaged curing the ills of densely packed urban living and rural decline by merging the best of town and country into Garden Cities of limited size. His ideas...

Howard, Sir Ebenezer

Howard, Sir Ebenezer (1850–1928)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
209 words

..., Sir Ebenezer ( 1850–1928 ) British town planner and founder of the garden-city movement. He was knighted in 1927 . Born in London, Howard started work in the City as a clerk but later became a shorthand writer at the law courts. In the period 1872–77 he visited the USA, where he was influenced by the ideas of Walt Whitman , Ralph Waldo Emerson , and Edward Bellamy . From them he conceived the idea of a garden city, an independent unit built in the countryside, where each house had its own grounds and all the other urban land was in public...

Ebenezer Howard

Ebenezer Howard  

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(1850–1928).Howard, born in London, made a modest living as a shorthand writer and his importance was as a pioneer of the garden city movement. He believed that unrestricted private ...
Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the urban environment. Two model communities started by industrialists in the 1890s, Bournville and Port Sunlight, pointed the way towards better conditions for factory workers. Ebenezer Howard ( 1850–1928 ) went further in Tomorrow ( 1898 ; rev. and reissued as Garden Cities of Tomorrow , 1902 ) in advocating small, self‐sufficient new towns with low‐density housing. Howard himself initiated Letchworth ( 1903 ) and Welwyn Garden City ( 1920 ), and his ideas, coupled with those of the Scottish biologist Patrick Geddes ( 1854–1932 ), helped to develop...

Georges Benoît-Lévy

Georges Benoît-Lévy  

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(1880–1971).French theorist, founder of the Association Française des Cités-Jardins (1903), based on Ebenezer Howard's ideas in England for Garden Cities. It achieved a few pleasant garden suburbs, ...
Radburn

Radburn  

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Planning principle developed at Radburn, NJ, on lines suggested originally by Ebenezer Howard and promoted by Lewis Mumford, Clarence Stein, and others. The proposed town (which was later ...
satellite town

satellite town  

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Town, self-contained and limited in size, built in the vicinity of a large town or city to house and employ those who would otherwise create a demand for expansion of the existing settlement, but ...
Sydney Howard Gay

Sydney Howard Gay  

(b. 22 May 1814; d. 25 June 1888), journalist and abolitionist.Sydney Howard Gay was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, to Ebenezer Gay and Mary Alleyne Otis. A prominent banker and ...
Clarence S. Stein

Clarence S. Stein  

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(188–1975).American architect and planner. He founded the Regional Planning Association to promote solutions to urban overcrowding and applied Ebenezer Howard's Garden City ideas to two important ...
new town

new town  

A planned urban community that is developed in a rural area, and is designed to be largely self‐sufficient with its own housing, education, commerce, and recreation.
Company town

Company town  

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Planned development to house factory workers. Early examples include the Saline de Chaux (or du Roi), Arc-et-Senans (1773–8), by Ledoux, and New Lanark, on the Clyde, in Scotland, commenced by David ...
Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs  

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(1916–2006).American city planner and critic. Believing cities provide the foundation for civilization, she made her name with The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), a sustained attack ...
Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman  

(1915–1982)Swedish-born actress.Bergman first made her name on stage and screen in Sweden before embarking on an international career in Hollywood. Gustaf Molander's Intermezzo (1936), made in ...
Sir Carol Reed

Sir Carol Reed  

(1906–1976)British film director who made some exceptional films in the postwar years. He was knighted in 1952.Reed, who was born in London and educated at King's School, Canterbury, began his career ...
Lewis Mumford

Lewis Mumford  

(1895–1990).American architectural and town-planning critic. A disciple of Patrick Geddes, his views on urban planning originally stemmed from that source. His Story of Utopias (1922) was followed by ...
garden city

garden city  

A new town that has been designed with a special emphasis on natural landscaping and retaining a rural atmosphere.
garden city

garden city   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...as conceived by Ebenezer Howard ( 1850–1928 ), with low housing densities, and many parks, open spaces, and allotments; the maximum city size to be about 30 000. The first UK garden city was Letchworth, 1903 . Howard’s ideas were echoed in the construction of new towns in the UK. A garden suburb is a planned suburban development inspired by Howard’s ideas. Garden suburbs were built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, for example London’s Hampstead Garden Suburb, 1907 . See P. Hall and C. Ward ( 1999 ) on Howard’s...

green belt

green belt   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
53 words

...belt Area of open land maintained as a barrier between adjoining built-up areas. The concept of green belts was first put forward ( 1898 ) by Ebenezer Howard in his plans for Britain's garden cities. Howard used them to distinguish residential from industrial sections. Green belts provide protection from factories and intensive commercial...

Fritsch, Theodor

Fritsch, Theodor (1853–1933)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
63 words

...Theodor ( 1853–1933 ) German theorist , he published ( 1896 ) Die Stadt der Zukunft which anticipated by two years Ebenezer Howard ’s Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform . However, half of the circular plan of Fritsch’s design was given over to parkland, and he proposed large living-quarters with communal gardens, underground services, and industrial estates. J.T ( 1996 )...

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