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Overview

Earth System Science

Earth System Science (ESS) seeks to understand major patterns, processes, and interactions of the main components of planet Earth—the atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, rocks, soils, and ...

Earth system science

Earth system science   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... system science ( ESS ) A science concerned with how the Earth works today; its natural systems and how these have been perturbed by human actions; how the components of the system have evolved over time in response to changes in other parts of the system; and predicting what will happen in the future. http://link.springer.com/journal/volumesAndIssues/12040 Online Journal of Earth System Science...

Earth System Science

Earth System Science   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
125 words

... System Science (ESS) An integrative, holistic approach to studying the interaction between the atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and heliosphere, but also with ambitions to include a human dimension. ESS values an interdisciplinary approach that combines the expertise of various specialists in the earth, atmospheric, and environmental sciences. It makes extensive use of remotely sensed data, models, and high-speed computing. Advocated from the early 1990s onwards, its proponents link it to the need to address global...

Earth System Science

Earth System Science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Systems Theory.” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 500B, 1964. Goudie, A. S. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment . 6th ed. Oxford, U.K., and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2005. Goudie, A. S. , and N. J. Middleton . Desert Dust in the Global System . Berlin and New York: Springer, 2006. Lawton, J. “ Earth System Science. ” Science 292 (2001), 1965. DOI: 10.1126/science.292.5524.1965. Lovelock, J. Gaia, a New Look at Life on Earth . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Pitman, A. J. “ On the Role of Geography in Earth...

Earth System Science

Earth System Science  

Earth System Science (ESS) seeks to understand major patterns, processes, and interactions of the main components of planet Earth—the atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, rocks, soils, and biosphere ...
Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of another new science, geology, arguing in his Theory of the Earth ( 1795 ) that earth history showed ‘no vestige of a beginning—no prospect of an end’. This concept of ‘deep time’ (as it is now called) provided an explanatory framework for the study of the processes by which the strata of rocks were formed and eroded, and for the laws and causes governing the movements of glaciers, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geology also linked with the organic sciences via palaeontology, the study of fossil remains. All these sciences relied on classification...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...other examples of script borrowings, such as the Japanese taking the Chinese characters in the 1 st millennium ad and incorporating them into a highly complex writing system that mixes several thousand Chinese characters with slightly fewer than 100, much simpler, syllabic symbols of Japanese origin. If ever the Rongorongo script of Easter Island—the most isolated inhabited spot on earth—is deciphered, it may shed light on the intriguing question of whether the Easter Islanders invented Rongorongo unaided, brought the idea of writing from Polynesia in their...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that firmly associates the science that emerged after the publication of Adam *Smith 's Wealth of Nations in 1776 with the heroic or rampant phase of capitalism in its modern industrial form. Robert *Southey may have been the first to make the connection between Smith and the ‘manufacturing system’, but Karl Marx was primarily responsible for creating ‘classical political economy’, by encapsulating the ideas of his ‘bourgeois’ predecessors and by distinguishing between the ‘vulgar’ or apologetic versions of the science and his own ‘critical’ enquiry...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...co-operative and communitarian ventures which aimed partly to give labour the value it had created. To counter political economy—the science of wealth—the socialists also developed a more democratic ‘social science’, or science of happiness, and not only imagined a state of affairs where working people would take all areas of cultural life into their own control but also tried to experience it in their halls of science. The co-operative movement mounted three national delegate congresses in the early 1830s and helped form a Grand National Consolidated...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as by its Evangelical allies. In 1801 Faber had censured *geology , regretting that ‘the bowels of the earth are ransacked, to convince the literary world of the erroneousness of the Mosaical Chronology’, but with the publication of William Buckland 's ( 1784–1856 ) Vindiciae Geologicae ( 1820 ) and the more celebrated Reliquiae Diluvianiae ( 1823 ) a strong argument in favour of a universal deluge appeared from the unexpected quarter of science. Buckland's proofs obviated the need to rake around in the treacherous records of paganism for confirmation...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sketch of a fourteenth-century city-state in Valperga ( 1823 ). In their target (religious and political orthodoxy) and their technique of textual appropriation, Byron's later ‘biblical’ dramas, Sardanapalus ( 1821 ), Cain: A Mystery ( 1822 ), and its sequel, Heaven and Earth ( 1823 ), also draw on the issues brought up at Hone's trials. Indeed they are reminders of the trials, as proto-Shavian intellectual comedies which replay and substantially invert biblical episodes in order to convey a secular and satirical message. Douce also contributed to...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in Germany was in German, but this was a passing phase: for the rest of the century, printing in German was about 40 per cent. Luther himself saw printing as ‘the greatest and latest gift of God, for by this means God seeks to extend the cause of true religion to the ends of the earth and to make it available in all languages’. Already by 1500 , printing had been attempted in some 60 German-speaking towns and was well established in most of them; but with the torrent of *pamphlets issued after 1517 the industry soon spread to a multitude of small,...

depositional systems tract

depositional systems tract  

An association of related depositional systems, e.g. a systems tract comprising fluvial, deltaic (see delta), and continental-shelf systems.
transgressive systems tract

transgressive systems tract  

(TST)In the genetic stratigraphic sequence model used in sequence stratigraphy, a bounding surface formed by a rapid rise in sea level. Compare highstand systems tract; and lowstand systems ...
pushbroom system

pushbroom system  

In remote sensing, an imaging device consisting of a linear array of sensors (charge-coupled devices) which is swept across the area of observation. Pushbroom systems allow greater resolution of data ...
AFMAG EM system

AFMAG EM system  

Audio-Frequency Magnetic ElectroMagnetic method, which uses natural electromagnetic (EM) fields (sferics) in the audio-frequency range (1–1 000 Hz) generated by thunderstorms to investigate lateral ...
SPS

SPS  

A satellite positioning system that uses interaction-geostationary and low, short-period satellite passes to determine the location of stations on the Earth's surface. See global positioning system.
ternary system

ternary system  

A mineral system in which there are three components, e.g. diopside (Di)–anorthite (An)–albite (Ab). See also cotectic curve; phase; and phase diagram.
Nereus

Nereus  

A solar system asteroid (No. 4660), diameter 2 km; orbital period 1.82 years. It is a near-Earth asteroid, scheduled to be visited by a sample-return mission.
eutectic system

eutectic system  

Mixture of two or more minerals in definite proportions which have crystallized from a melt or solution simultaneously. The temperature at which this occurs is the eutectic point.
depositional system

depositional system  

An assemblage of lithofacies (see also facies; facies association) formed within a particular depositional environment (e.g. fluvial).

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