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Duverger's law

In Political Parties (English edition 1954), the French political scientist Maurice Duverger proposed a law and a hypothesis about the relationship between the number of parties in a ...

Duverger’s law

Duverger’s law   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
384 words

...’s law In Political Parties (English edition 1954 ), the French political scientist Maurice Duverger ( 1917–2014 ) proposed a law and a hypothesis about the relationship between the number of parties in a country and its electoral system. The law was that ‘the simple majority, single ballot system favours the two‐party system’; the hypothesis was that ‘both the simple‐majority system with second ballot and proportional representation favour multi‐partism’. The division of these two statements into one law and one hypothesis is due to Riker , who...

Duverger's law

Duverger's law  

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Overview Page
In Political Parties (English edition 1954), the French political scientist Maurice Duverger proposed a law and a hypothesis about the relationship between the number of parties in a country and its ...
tactical voting

tactical voting  

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Overview Page
In a first‐past‐the‐post electoral system a vote is tactical when it is cast for a candidate that the voter believes is more likely to win than their preferred candidate, to best influence who wins ...
multiparty system

multiparty system  

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Regime where more than two political parties are in serious contention for power, alone or in coalition. Multiparty systems usually coexist with proportional representation (PR) (see Duverger's law), ...
electoral system

electoral system  

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Any set of rules whereby the votes of citizens determine the selection of executives and/or legislators. Electoral systems may be categorized in several ways. The most useful is probably a three‐way ...
multiparty system

multiparty system   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
101 words

...system Regime where more than two political parties are in serious contention for power, alone or in coalition. Multiparty systems usually coexist with proportional representation ( PR ) ( see Duverger’s law ), but the association is not unbreakable. For instance, Germany and Ireland have PR but relatively few parties; while Canada has had numerous parties contending for power, though usually only two or at most three in any one district, thanks to the effect of the electoral system. The pattern of political cleavage is more fundamental than PR...

proportional representation

proportional representation   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
234 words

... Duverger’s law posits an association between first-past-the-post and two‐party systems and one between PR and multi‐party systems. The second association is weaker than the first. However, most argument on the merits of PR assumes that it is true. Opponents of PR then say that PR leads to instability and irresponsible government; its supporters argue that the alternatives are unfair. Thus there is usually no meeting of minds. Constructive argument about the desirability of PR in any one case ought to concentrate on whether the second part of Duverger’s law...

party system

party system   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
143 words

...system Tautologically, the set of all the significant parties in a country, their interactions, and (sometimes) the electoral system and voter loyalties that produce it. Divided by some into ‘ one‐party systems ’, ‘two‐party systems’, and ‘multi‐party systems’ ( see also Duverger’s law ); others doubt the analytical usefulness of the distinction. In the introduction to their influential Party Systems and Voter Alignments ( 1967 ), S. M. Lipset and S. Rokkan argue that party systems in Western democracies typically ‘froze’ the pattern of cleavages ...

tactical voting

tactical voting   Quick reference

Stephen Fisher

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
300 words

...classic example involves a supporter of a party placed third or lower in the constituency choosing to vote for one of the front-runners because they are wary of ‘wasting’ their vote. The wasted-vote logic is sometimes referred to as ‘Duverger’s psychological effect’ and is one of the factors that is thought to drive Duverger’s law . Formal rational choice theory shows us that it is not necessarily utility-maximizing to desert third or lower placed parties. Someone indifferent between the two front-runners will have little incentive to vote tactically for...

electoral system

electoral system   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
256 words

...systems in the democratic world; they differ widely and there is no agreed criterion whereby one may be judged better than another. Each family of systems has a number of distinctive features. Plurality systems tend to concentrate the vote on the two leading parties ( see Duverger’s law ) except where there are concentrated regional parties. Majoritarian systems are appropriate for presidential elections, since there is only one president who ought to have majority support at least against the last rival left in the field; therefore systems such as ...

Third Parties

Third Parties   Reference library

Paul Allen Beck

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,178 words

...such a large and diverse nation, why has the American electoral arena been so dominated by only two parties, especially in recent decades? The principal reason most scholars cite is Duverger’s Law: Single-member districts with plurality elections, where the first-place candidate can win without a majority of votes, produce two-party systems. From time to time exceptions to this law appear, when a third-party nationally becomes the second party in district elections, but the fact that Chhibber and Kollman ’s ( 2004 ) effective number of congressional district...

Meit [Meijt; Meyt], Conrat

Meit [Meijt; Meyt], Conrat (fl c.1506–50)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,274 words

...carvings possess the dignity of Classical art, their delicacy of detail, for example the elaborate coiffure of the Judith , is more Netherlandish in character. G. Troescher : Conrat Meit von Worms: Ein rheinischer Bildhauer der Renaissance (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1927) J. Duverger : ‘ Conrat Meijt ’, Bull. Cl. B.-A., Acad. Royale Sci., Lett. & B.-A. Belgique , n. s. 4, v (1934) J. Borchgrave d’Altena : ‘ A propos d ’, Rev. Belge Archéol. & Hist. A ., xxiii (1954), pp. 225–8 G. von der Osten and H. Vey : Painting and Sculpture in Germany and the...

Political Parties and Party Competition

Political Parties and Party Competition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,744 words

...system is likely to evolve. Where the districts are larger and multimember, with each party represented according to its strength (the system known as proportional representation), smaller parties are motivated to keep contesting, and a multiparty system is more likely (Duverger, 1959). Single-member districts with runoff elections, as in France, fall in between: the supporters of the smaller parties can use the electoral process and the bargaining power of their votes on the second round to win important concessions, but the control of public office...

Elections and Electoral Behavior

Elections and Electoral Behavior   Reference library

Scott D. McClurg and Matthew L. Bergbower

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,951 words

...College. Also of note are the rules for determining winners of legislative elections. The United States has winner-take-all single-member districts in legislative elections, meaning only one candidate can win per legislative district or state. As first discussed by Maurice Duverger, these rules are key for explaining the structure of competition in elections. In the United States , unlike in a proportional representation system, the only parties that get any representation are those that win a plurality of the vote. Consequently, groups that might form...

Vos, Marten

Vos, Marten (1532)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,542 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Rijksmus.). Hollstein : Dut. & Flem. A. von Bartsch : Le Peintre-graveur (1803–21) [ b .] A. Reinsch : Die Zeichnungen des Marten de Vos (diss., Tübingen, Eberhard-Karls-U., 1967) R.-A. d’Hulst : ‘ Over enkele tekeningen van Maarten de Vos ’, Miscellanea Jozef Duverger , ii (Ghent, 1968), pp. 505–18 H. Mielke : ‘ Antwerpener Graphik in der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts: Der Thesaurus veteris et novi testamenti des Gerard de Jode (1585) und seine Künstler ’, Z. Kstgesch. , xxxviii (1975), pp. 29–83 M. M. L. Netto-Bol : The So-called...

Jagiellon [Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai; Polish: Jagiełłonowie], House of

Jagiellon [Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai; Polish: Jagiełłonowie], House of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,406 words

...in the law book of the town of Znojmo ( 1523 ; Znojmo, Distr. Archvs, Cod. 286/A), and in copies of portraits by Hans Krell ( fl 1522– c. 1586 ) of Brussels, who was in his service from 1522 to 1526 , and of a posthumous portrait ( 1533 ) by Bernard van Orley, commissioned by Mary of Hungary. After Louis II's death at the Battle of Mohács, Mary became regent of the Netherlands from 1531 , where she maintained a court famous for its art ( see Habsburg , (6)). I. Schlégl : ‘ Ikonographie König Ludwigs II. von Ungarn ’, Miscellanea Jozef Duverger , i...

Green Parties

Green Parties   Reference library

Michael O’Neill

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,522 words

...but what evidence accruing from research does indicate is a medley of critical variables in play that, singly or in sequence, determine their overall political impact. These critical variables are discussed here. The Electoral Rules. One might cite here Maurice Duverger's ( 1964 ) putative “law,” to the effect that the degree of proportionality in an electoral system either assists or hinders the prospects for small and minor parties in so far as proportionality facilitates or precludes multiparty politics. This observation is, however, only a...

Antwerp

Antwerp   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,926 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of many foreign markets, growing competition from abroad and, above all, changes in taste and cheaper, alternative wall coverings, all of which contributed to the collapse of the industry. The death of de Wael marked the virtual end of the tapestry industry in Antwerp. E. Duverger: Antwerp Tapestries of the Seventeenth Century , Connoisseur (April 1977), pp. 274–87 K. Nelson and J. Jordaens : Jacob Jordaens: Design for Tapestry (Turnhout, 1998) I. Buchanan: Michiel de Bos and the Tapestries of the Labours of Hercules after Frans Floris ( c ....

Francken family

Francken family   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,259 words
Illustration(s):
1

...pp. 259–64 J. Bruyn : ‘ Francisco Frutet or Frans I ’, Jb.: Kon. Mus. S. Kst. (1962–3), pp. 56–74 C. Van de Velde : ‘ Portretten van Frans Francken den oudere ’, Jb.: Kon. Mus. S. Kst . (1962–3), pp. 175–86 C. Van de Velde : Frans Floris (Brussels, 1975), pp. 175–85 E. Duverger : Kunstinventarissen uit de zeventiende eeuw , i (Brussels, 1984), pp. 389–94 [inv. of the artist's estate drawn up on 15 Feb 1617] U. Härting : Frans Francken II (Freren, 1989), pp. 20–21 (3) Ambrosius Francken I ( b Herentals, c. 1544 ; d Antwerp, 16 Oct 1618 )....

Netherlands, Southern

Netherlands, Southern   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21,549 words
Illustration(s):
2

...patterns. The cartoon painter, however, who frequently received his orders directly from the weaver, was often responsive to the latter's wishes. H. Göbel : Wandteppiche, i: Die Niederlande (Leipzig, 1923; Eng. trans., New York, 1924) J. Duverger and E. Duverger : A. Textiles , 11 vols (Ghent, 1953–86) E. Duverger : Jan, Jacques et Frans de Moor, tapijtwevers en tapijthandelaars te Oudenaarde, Antwerpen en Gent (1560 tot c. 1680) (Ghent, 1960) R. A. d’Hulst : Flemish Tapestries from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century (Brussels, 1967) Chefs...

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