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Demosthenes

(384–322 bc), Athenian orator and statesman, who according to Plutarch overcame an initial stammer by training himself to speak with pebbles in his mouth. He is best known for ...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6 words

... ( see page 237...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (384–322 bc)([People])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
54 words

... [People] ( 384–322 bc ) An Athenian orator and statesman famous for a series of orations attacking the rising power of Philip of Macedon. > An eloquent or persuasive speaker The explorer waxes eloquent as Antony, Demosthenes and the Speaker of the House all rolled into one. T. Coraghessan Boyle Water Music ...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (c.384–322bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
29 words

... ( c .384–322 bc ) Athenian orator and statesman. In 351 bc he delivered the first of his famous Philippics , urging the Greeks to unite and resist Philip II of...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (3)   Reference library

Richard L. Hunter

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29 words

... (3) , of Bithynia , epic poet of unknown date; composed a Bithyniaca in at least ten books. Fragments FGrH 699; Powell , Coll. Alex. 25–7. Richard L....

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (384–322)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
78 words

... ( 384–322 bc ) Athenian orator and statesman . He is best known for his political speeches on the need to defend Athens against the pretensions of Philip II of Macedon, which are known as the Philippics . Demosthenes was at the forefront of the campaign to unite the Greek city-states militarily against Macedon; the Greeks were defeated at the battle of Chaeronea in 338 bc , and Demosthenes committed suicide after the failure of an Athenian revolt against...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,652 words
Illustration(s):
1

...critics of Demosthenes’ own time and shortly after, this combination was seen as a weakness, but it emerged in the Roman period, and ever after, as evidence of Demosthenes’ strengths. Essentially this point is made in the preface to the first printed edition of Demosthenes’ works, where Aldus Manutius in 1504 quoted the Roman Valerius Maximus: Alterum Demosthenes natura, alterum industria fecit (Nature made one Demosthenes; hard work made the other). [ See also Aeschines ; Oratory, Greek ; and Speechwriting .] Bibliography Works of Demosthenes Speeches 18...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
368 words

... , Athenian orator; born 382 b.c, died 322 . He remained “the Orator” for the Byz., who referred to him frequently and used quotations from his speeches through the 15th C. Libanios and Zosimos drafted short biographies of Demosthenes based on ancient sources; numerous papyri from Byz. Egypt contain texts of Demosthenes. A statue of the orator in the Baths of Zeuxippos in Constantinople was described in verse by Christodoros of Koptos . Demosthenes was among those classical authors in whom interest was revived in the 9th C. Photios ( Bibl .,...

Dēmosthenēs

Dēmosthenēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,872 words

...known that Philip had occupied the Gates of Thermopylae and that Phocis could not be saved. Demosthenes was shouted down and Aeschines made the speech to which Demosthenes constantly recurred. What Demosthenes wanted that day is not clear: if he did want the city to denounce the new Peace, to march out to support Phocis attacked by the Macedonians and Thessalians from the north and the Thebans from the south, his judgement was seriously awry. From that day Demosthenes determined to undo the Peace, but for the moment contented himself with the attack on...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (2) (384–322 bc)   Reference library

George Law Cawkwell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,423 words

... (1990) and On the False Embassy (2000); W. Wayte , Demosthenes Against Androtion and Against Timocrates (1882); J. A. Goldstein , The Letters of Demosthenes (1968). Index S. Preuss (1892). General A. W. Pickard-Cambridge , Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom (1914); A. Schaefer , Demosthenes und seine Zeit , 2nd edn., 3 vols. (1885–7); F. R. Wüst , Philipp II von Makedonien und Griechenland (1938); There are many debatable questions of fact about the career of Demosthenes and very various judgements; the account given here is based...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... One of the greatest of Greek orators ( 384–322 bc ), who according to legend learned to speak well by placing pebbles in his mouth. He headed a fruitless endeavour to throw off the Macedonian yoke and, under sentence of death, fled to the island of Calauria where he took...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (384–322 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
134 words

... ( 384–322 bc ) Leading Athenian orator and politician who tried to unite the Greeks against the territorial ambitions of Philip II of Macedon. Sixty‐one of his orations survive. He became a rhetorical and libertarian model both in antiquity and in the Renaissance and 18th century. His Philippics were imitated by Cicero in his attacks on Mark Antony; Plutarch paired his life with Cicero's; Quintilian and Longinus analysed his methods. Thomas Wilson , who translated his Philippics ( 1570 ), said that they were ‘most nedefull to be redde...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes   Quick reference

George Law Cawkwell

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,028 words

... ( 384–322 bc ), the greatest Athenian orator. When Demosthenes was 7 years old his father died, leaving the management of his estate to his brothers, Aphobus and Demophon, and a friend, Therippides. The trustees mismanaged the business, and Demosthenes at the age of 18 found himself almost without resources. He claimed his patrimony from his guardians, who spent three years in attempts to compromise. In the mean time, he was studying rhetoric and legal procedure under Isaeus and at 21 he brought a successful action against his guardians, but...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (384–322)   Reference library

George Law Cawkwell

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,043 words

... ( 384–322 bc ), the greatest Athenian orator. When Demosthenes was 7 years old his father died, leaving the management of his estate to his brothers, Aphobus and Demophon , and a friend, Therippides . The trustees mismanaged the business, and Demosthenes at the age of 18 found himself almost without resources. He claimed his patrimony from his guardians, who spent three years in attempts to compromise. In the mean-time, he was studying rhetoric and legal procedure under Isaeus and at 21 he brought a successful action against his guardians,...

Dēmosthenēs

Dēmosthenēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
162 words

... 1 (d. 413 bc ), Athenian general. After an unsuccessful invasion of Aetolia in 426 he won two brilliant victories against a Peloponnesian and Ambraciot army invading Amphilochia. In 425 his occupation of Pylos led to a most valuable success, the capture of a body of Spartan hoplites on the adjacent island of Sphacteria. He surprised Nisaea in 424 , but failed to take Megara , and in a triple attack on Boeotia, for which he was perhaps responsible, he was unable to land troops at Siphae, since the enemy was forewarned. He was not again...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (1) (d. 413 bc)   Reference library

Henry Dickinson Westlake and Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
303 words

...Epipolae by a night attack, he urged withdrawal from Syracuse, which was delayed until the Athenians lost control of the sea and were driven to attempt escape by land. The rearguard, led by Demosthenes , surrendered on the sixth day, and he was subsequently executed; Thucydides (pointedly?) omits any assessment of him, of the kind he accords to Nicias. Demosthenes apparently had no political ambitions and enjoyed no political influence. He showed inventiveness in trying to break the military stalemate produced by Periclean strategy ( see pericles (1) ),...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (384–322 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
106 words

... ( 384–322 bc ) Leading Athenian orator and politician who tried to unite the Greeks against the territorial ambitions of Philip II of Macedon. Sixty‐one of his orations survive. He became a rhetorical and libertarian model both in antiquity and in the Renaissance and 18th century. His Philippics were imitated by Cicero in his attacks on Mark Antony; Plutarch paired his life with Cicero's; Quintilian and Longinus analysed his methods. Thomas Wilson , who translated his Philippics ( 1570 ), said that they were ‘most nedefull to be redde...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (c.384–c.322 bc)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
107 words

...0 Demosthenes c. 384 – c. 322 bc Greek orator and Athenian statesman Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises. Against Leptines 162 Nothing is easier than self-deceit. For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true. Third Olynthiac sect. 19; see Caesar Nothing is easier than self-deceit what each man wishes he also believes to be true Excessive dealings with tyrants are not good for the security of free states. Second Philippic When asked what was first in oratory, [ he ] replied to his questioner,...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (c.384–c.322 bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
102 words

...0 Demosthenes c. 384 – c. 322 bc Greek orator and Athenian statesman There is one safeguard known generally to the wise, which is an advantage and security to all, but especially to democracies against despots—suspicion. Second Philippic ; see curran democracies against despots against despots —suspicion against despots— suspicion Excessive dealings with tyrants are not good for the security of free states. Second Philippic Excessive dealings with tyrants security of free states When asked what was first in oratory, [ he ] replied to...

Demosthenes

Demosthenes (c.384–c.322 bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
258 words

... Demosthenes c. 384 – c. 322 bc Greek orator and Athenian statesman Nothing is easier than self-deceit. For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true. Third Olynthiac sect. 19; see bacon , caesar Nothing is easier than self-deceit what each man wishes he also believes to be true What worse charge can any one bring against an orator than that his words and his sentiments do not tally? On the Crown bring against an orator his words and his sentiments his words and his sentiments You, Athenians, possessing unsurpassed...

Dēmo'sthenēs

Dēmo'sthenēs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
2,899 words

...Demosthenes urges that Diopeithes should be vigorously supported. The speech is distinguished by the passion with which Demosthenes expresses his feelings about Philip's fundamental and implacable ambition. A few months later, the threat to the Chersonese and Byzantium was closer and Philip was also interfering in Euboea. Demosthenes wants to unite the Greek cities against Philip and, trying to rouse the Athenians to the imminence of their danger, proposes in the Third Philippic the immediate dispatch of forces. This is one of the finest of Demosthenes'...

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