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Overview

Democracy Promotion

Democracy promotion is an international activity engaged in by a variety of governmental, intergovernmental, commercial, and nonprofit actors. It aims to further political change toward ...

Democracy Promotion

Democracy Promotion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,053 words

... Promotion Democracy promotion is an international activity engaged in by a variety of governmental, intergovernmental, commercial, and nonprofit actors. It aims to further political change toward more democracy in prospective, emerging, and new democracies. It can mean challenging the hold exercised by autocracies or authoritarian regimes, encouraging and supporting democratic transitions, assisting the consolidation of a new democracy, and protecting new democracies against internal threats or strains. These scenarios are all different. The borders...

Democracy Promotion

Democracy Promotion   Reference library

James Traub

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... to install a democracy there, but as it became clear that Saddam Hussein had no weapons of mass destruction, Bush and other officials increasingly spoke of the mission as a species of democracy promotion. The immense unpopularity of the war thus had the effect of discrediting the entire concept. The public, both at home and abroad, came to think of democracy promotion as a cynical euphemism for regime change. Thus it was no surprise that when Barack Obama became president in 2009 , he was far more circumspect about the language of democracy than Bush had...

Democracy Promotion in Africa

Democracy Promotion in Africa   Reference library

Oda van Cranenburgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,399 words
Illustration(s):
1

...separately as a democracy promotion strategy. Conclusion In the analysis and evaluation of democracy promotion, both analytical and case studies converge on several broad observations, which evidently hold for Africa. First, while the policy rhetoric on democracy promotion is ever-present and appears to represent a strong normative consensus, the reality often diverges from policy statements and intentions. This observation applies to both negative and positive linkage strategies. Moreover, since the turn of the millennium, democracy promotion has clearly...

Democracy Promotion and U.S. Foreign Policy

Democracy Promotion and U.S. Foreign Policy   Reference library

Liam David O’Brien and David Ryan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,026 words

...U.S. democracy promotion finally began to take on a genuine, sustained (yet still selective) substance through the targeted deployment of foreign aid and democracy assistance. A critique of the dilemmas, alternatives, and the question of U.S. credibility on democracy promotion is presented. In order to provide a complete a picture as possible, emphasis will be placed throughout not only on the words and actions of U.S. governments, but also on the literature, theories, and trends that surround the concept of democracy promotion. Democracy Promotion and the...

Democracy Promotion

Democracy Promotion  

Democracy promotion is an international activity engaged in by a variety of governmental, intergovernmental, commercial, and nonprofit actors. It aims to further political change toward more ...
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...also fostered intellectual connections. Colonial America had three colleges ( *Harvard , William and Mary, and *Yale ) by the early 18 th century and five more by 1770 . Pioneering learned and scientific societies included the American Philosophical Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge, created in 1769 by the merger of two existing societies. Such institutions subscribed to the transatlantic notion of a ‘republic of letters’, in which free inquiry would counteract the long-standing effects of church and state control. At the same time,...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

.... Their rapid rise to international fame was assisted by the peak in production and international trade reached by Latin American publishing in the period. Complementing state support for the production and reading of books, *UNESCO in 1971 created a Regional Centre for the Promotion of the Book in Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLALC), situated in Bogotá; members of the centre were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela....

Christian Democracy

Christian Democracy  

Christian democracy has been a successful post‐war political movement in Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, Latin America. Its sociological and ideological origins, however, lie in the ...
democratic centralism

democratic centralism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The official organizing and decision‐making principle of Communist Parties. Formally, the centralist aspect was asserted via the subordination of all lower bodies to the decisions taken by higher ...
political advertising

political advertising  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The paid-for promotions in support of political parties or issues or specifically, the marketing of a political campaign.
Zia-ul- Huq

Zia-ul- Huq  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Jalandhar, 12 Aug. 1942; d. Bhawalpur, 17 Aug. 1988)Pakistani; President 1978–88 Zia came from a lower-middle-class family and was educated at St Stephen's College in Delhi before joining the ...
Kim Dae-Jung

Kim Dae-Jung  

(1924–2009).President of South Korea, 1998–2003Born in Kwangju, South Cholla province, he studied at the Universities of Konguk, Korea, and Kyunghee. A newspaper editor, he was elected a member of ...
Mohammad Ayub Khan

Mohammad Ayub Khan  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Rehana, North-West Frontier Province, 14 May 1907; d. Islamabad, Pakistan, 20 Apr. 1974)Pakistani; President 1958–69 Ayub came from a middling income Pakhtun family from the Hazara district of ...
Castroism

Castroism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Theory and practice associated with Fidel Castro (b. 1926), leader of the Cuban Revolution since 1959. Its first public statement was Castro's History Will Absolve Me (1953) which stressed ...
Kim Young Sam

Kim Young Sam  

(b. 20 Dec. 1927).President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) 1993–8Born near Pusan, he graduated in sociology from the Seoul National University in 1951. He became a secretary to Syngman Rhee, ...
sociology of industry

sociology of industry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A loosely defined, but well-established sub-specialism within sociology, which can trace its origins back to the discipline's founders. Its expansion in the 20th century was encouraged by the hope of ...
social media governance

social media governance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
136 words

...or brand . 4. Rules of conduct within particular social media sites. See also moderation ; compare netiquette . 5. The contribution of social media and networks to the promotion of democratic government. See also digital democracy ; mass self-communication ; networked participation ; networked public sphere ; network society ; participatory democracy . ...

cyber-utopianism

cyber-utopianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Media

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
65 words

...cyber-utopianism A naïve optimism focusing on the internet’s positive political potential for participatory democracy and freedom (a leveller of hierarchies, blurring the roles of producers and users, and fostering collaboration), downplaying its use for surveillance and manipulation (and the promotion of consumerism). See also digital socialism ; governance ; hashtag activism ; imaginary cosmopolitanism ; mass self-communication ; network collectivism ; networked communication ; networked participation ; participatory media ; peer-to-peer...

cyber-utopianism

cyber-utopianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
68 words

...A naïve optimism focusing on the internet’s positive political potential for participatory democracy and freedom (a leveller of hierarchies, blurring the roles of producers and users , and fostering collaboration), downplaying its use for surveillance and manipulation (and the promotion of consumerism ). See also imaginary cosmopolitanism ; mass self-communication ; networked communication ; networked participation ; participatory media ; peer-to-peer interaction ; produser ; social media governance . ...

engagement

engagement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Media

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
162 words

...engagement metric. See also conversation ; daily story feedback ; engagement rate ; public engagement ; real-time marketing ; social promotion ; spreadable media ; sticky media ; true reach . 2. (political engagement) Being involved in the democratic process and participating in public life at a local, national, and/or international level. See also digital democracy ; governance ; participatory democracy . 3. (civic engagement) Being aware of community issues and playing an active role in community organizations for the common good. See...

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