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Demise of Soviet Communism

The contribution of human rights to the demise of Soviet totalitarianism is commonly portrayed as a triumph of Western values and Western power. According to a view shared by many ...

Demise of Soviet Communism

Demise of Soviet Communism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,105 words

... of Soviet Communism The contribution of human rights to the demise of Soviet totalitarianism is commonly portrayed as a triumph of Western values and Western power. According to a view shared by many Western commentators and by post-Soviet Russian nationalists, the Western democracies fostered the emergence of the Soviet human rights movement though radio broadcasting and public diplomacy. In the process, they prevailed over the illiberal heritage that made Russians so hostile to Western notions of human rights. The most sophisticated version of this...

Demise of Soviet Communism

Demise of Soviet Communism  

The contribution of human rights to the demise of Soviet totalitarianism is commonly portrayed as a triumph of Western values and Western power. According to a view shared by many ...
32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Soviet-style organization of publishing and distribution was enforced, together with strict *censorship . Material deemed politically undesirable was withdrawn from libraries. Some free Czech and Slovak émigré publishing continued abroad and was re-energized by the post-1968 wave of exiles. At home, independent underground publishing took off in the 1970s and 1980s ( see samizdat ), signalling future developments. The demise of Communism in November 1989 brought complete transformation: with a market economy came the reorganization of the...

East–West relations

East–West relations  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The relationship existing from the end of World War II between the USA and its allies on one side (the West) and the former Soviet Union and its allies on the other (the East). After the war the USA ...
space race

space race  

The intense competition between the USA and USSR to become the leader in space activities from the late 1940s until the USSR's collapse in 1991. Rivalry began after World War II when both the USA and ...
Russia

Russia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Russia's president is determined to modernize this vast country but is also crushing its democracyRussia, which is officially the Russian Federation, is by far the world's largest country, spanning ...
CIA

CIA   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...especially in the early years of the cold war , when it was still largely unknown to the US public. Its reputation was badly tarnished in the watergate scandal, and it was almost annihilated in the revelations of abuses of power that followed. In 1995 , in the wake of the demise of its main enemy, the Soviet Union, President Clinton redefined its mission as the countering of weapons of mass destruction , drug trafficking and international organized crime, a brief far removed from its original mission of combating communism. Among its former heads was (...

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

Peter Burnell

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
156 words

...as well as culturally, socially, and politically. They all share an objection to colonization, and to foreign domination generally ( see also imperialism ), but they hardly constitute a cohesive political force ( see also non-alignment ). The demise of the Second World following the end of communism there also renders the term anomalous. Peter...

space race

space race   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...records on the Mir space station and the robotic return of lunar surface samples, the demise of communism (leading to the break up of the USSR in 1991 and accompanying economic collapse) devastated the space programme. The newly independent Russia subsequently received financial support from the West for its continuation of the programme. The space race ended with the emergence of joint projects, such as the Apollo – Soyuz Test Project and the International Space Station...

East–West relations

East–West relations   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
410 words

...regimes of China and the Soviet Union, and the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement , an attempt to remain independent from both East and West. During the 1970s there was a period of détente when relations improved, only to deteriorate because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ( 1979 ), which triggered what many called the second Cold War. However, the later 1980s saw the rise of glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union, progress in arms agreements, the withdrawal of the Soviet army from Afghanistan ( 1989 ), the demise of communism in the...

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Helsinki: The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1972–1975 , 1987. Daniel C. Thomas , The Power of International Norms: Human Rights, the Helsinki Accords and the Demise of Communism , forthcoming 2000. Daniel C....

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich (1888–1938)   Quick reference

Stephen Whitefield

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
226 words

...state control of the economy during the Civil War 1918–20 . Moreover, in this period, he produced a rather doctrinaire textbook, The ABC of Communism . However, Bukharin became the leading proponent of NEP, advocating the radicalization of the policy at various critical junctures. Famously, he enjoined the Russian peasantry to ‘enrich’ themselves. With the NEP’s demise, Bukharin’s political career effectively ended. He was removed from the Politburo in 1929 , although he was re-elected to the Central Committee in 1934 when he became editor of Izvestiya ....

Communism

Communism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,294 words

...because the “ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas” ( The German Ideology , 1846 ), bourgeois ideology controls the family, the state, and culture as well. Through ideology “men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out” (“Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy ,” 1859 ). Marxism is little understood in America, and the recent demise of communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe only seems to confirm its irrelevance to American culture. Yet, for a time, communism emerged as a powerful force in...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,405 words

...of Soviet strength and the demise of the Soviet ideological challenge to the West. The development of East-West rivalry was marked by a set of crises, in both Europe and the Third World, and by an enduring competition in arms, especially nuclear weapons. Central as the arms race was to the Cold War, however, the latter encompassed a broader strategic and political contest. After the end of World War II, Europe was soon divided by the “Iron Curtain” of communist border controls into the Soviet and Western blocs, which led to the Berlin blockade of 1948...

Communism

Communism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,435 words
Illustration(s):
3

...reforms initiated by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s. Preconditions. The erosion of faith in Communism as a political ideology and governing system on the part of party members, intellectuals, and citizens was an important precondition of Communism's demise. Although cynicism and a decline in socialist conviction affected all parts of the Soviet-dominated Communist bloc by the mid-1980s, problems were most acute in Eastern Europe, where Communist regimes were installed in the late 1940s and forged during a period of Stalinist repression...

Helsinki Accords

Helsinki Accords   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
678 words

...in Europe. Maresca, John J. To Helsinki—the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1973–1975 . Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1985. The authoritative insider's account of the conference proceedings, as told by the senior American diplomat present. Thomas, Daniel C. The Helsinki Effect: International Norms, Human Rights, and the Demise of Communism . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001. Constructivist study arguing that the international norms established by the Helsinki Accords ultimately undermined one-party Communist...

Collectivization

Collectivization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
979 words

... and 1983 , China restored its households to the status of production units. China's communes and production brigades then became township and village governments that ran industrial enterprises and provided agricultural and other services to local residents. Dismantling of collective farms proceeded at different rates following the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in 1989 and 1991 . In many countries, most farmers remained within some type of cooperative structure as of the mid-1990s. Collective farms were widely viewed as...

John Birch Society

John Birch Society   Reference library

Glen Jeansonne and David Luhrssen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
986 words

...sold over 7 million copies. By the time of Welch ’s death, the John Birch Society’s strength had waned, but the group continued to exist even after the collapse of the Soviet Bloc, arguing that the demise of Communism was a ploy by the Communists. Following his death, the society continued to propagate conspiracy theories and linked mainstream Republicans such as George H. W. Bush to an international Masonic conspiracy. Declaring itself as the voice of radical libertarianism, the Birch Society spread its views online through the Liberty News Network from its...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,388 words

...has followed the end of Soviet centralization. In China a communist party still rules, amidst growing social and political pressures. Although communism as an alternative ideology is discredited, many of the tensions, economic and social, that produced it remain acute, as the breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by communism has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts. (See also Arms Control ; Containment ; Marshall Plan ; Perestroika ; Potsdam Conference ; Yalta Conference .) Fred Halliday , The Making of the Second Cold War ,...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,412 words

...there is pervasive nostalgia for world stature, exacerbated by the economic collapse that has followed the end of Soviet centralization. In China, the Communist Party still rules, amid growing social and political pressures. Although communism as an alternative ideology is discredited, many of the tensions, economic and social, that produced it remain acute, as the breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by communism has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts. [ See also Arms Control ; Containment ; Détente ; Gorbachev,...

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