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Dead Sea Scrolls

Subject: Religion

A collection of Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts, the first of which were found in 1947 by shepherds in a cave near the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. They belonged to the library of ...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
60 words

... Sea Scrolls Ancient manuscripts discovered from 1947 in caves at Qumran near the Dead Sea . Written in Hebrew or Aramaic, they date from between the 1st century bc and the 1st century ad . They include versions of much of the Old Testament and other types of religious literature. Some are a thousand years older than any other biblical...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
69 words

... Sea Scrolls A collection of Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts, the first of which were found in 1947 by shepherds in a cave near the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. They belonged to the library of the Jewish (perhaps Essene) community at nearby Qumran, and were probably hidden shortly before the Roman destruction of 68 ad . The scrolls include fragments of nearly every book of the Hebrew...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
118 words

... Sea Scrolls [Do] A series of more than 800 documents dating to the 1st and 2nd centuries bc and the 1st century ad which were found in 1947 in caves at Qumran near the Dead Sea in Israel. Written on parchment and papyrus, these documents were preserved because of the extreme aridity of the region. They are the religious writings of a Jewish sect known as the Essenes, and seem to have been hidden in the caves during the Roman subjugation of the Jewish Revolt in ad 68 . The collection includes versions of all the Old Testament texts as well as...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
431 words

... Sea Scrolls . The Dead Sea scrolls are Jewish manuscripts found between 1947 and 1956 , principally in caves near the ruins of Qumran, the site of an ancient community on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. Mostly in Hebrew, though some in Aramaic and Greek, the scrolls date from the third through the first centuries b.c.e. The fifteen thousand fragments represent nine hundred manuscripts, a quarter of them biblical books, another quarter known nonbiblical writings, and the remaining half previously unknown, mostly sectarian compositions. The biblical...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
315 words

...more than one community is depicted in the sectarian literature. The Dead Sea Scrolls provide pre-Christian Hebrew copies of the Old Testament and preserve much previously unknown Jewish literature. They have also contributed to the history of biblical textual transmission and shed light on ancient scribal errors and practices. See also 2 , 3 . Dennis J. Mizzi ODCC J. Vanderkam and P. Flint , The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2002) G. Vermes , The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English , rev. edn...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Martin David Goodman

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
764 words

...J. G. Campbell, Deciphering the Dead Sea Scrolls , 2nd edn. (2004); J. C. VanderKam and P. Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2005). Bibliography in L. H. Schiffman and J. VanderKam, Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls , 2 vols. (2000). On the site at Qumran, see R. de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls (1973); J. Magness, The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (2003). Numerous studies and reviews can be found in Revue de Qumran, Journal of Jewish Studies , and in Dead Sea Scrolls Discoveries . Martin David...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
148 words

... Sea Scrolls . Collection of manuscripts found in caves near the Dead Sea. The scrolls, discovered between 1947 and 1956 , date mainly between c. 150 bce and 68 ce . They seem to have belonged to a succession of communities based at Qumran , the last of which was destroyed by the Romans in the first Jewish revolt. They include manuscripts which seem to relate to a community or communities based in Qumran: the Manual of Discipline , the Damascus Document , the Thanksgiving Psalms , and the War Scroll . The identification of those who produced...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
170 words

... Sea Scrolls , documents made of leather and papyrus, and, in one case, of copper, found between 1947 and 1956 in caves near Qumran by the Dead Sea. The scrolls, written by Jews , are mostly in Hebrew and Aramaic , but a small number are in Greek. Many are fragments of texts from the OT and from Jewish religious compositions otherwise preserved only through Christian manuscript traditions. The scrolls were written in the last centuries bc and 1st cent. ad . Of particular significance in the study of Judaism in this period are the texts composed by...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,224 words

... The Dead Sea Scrolls Today (1994); L. H. Schiffman , Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls (Philadelphia, 1994); id. and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2 vols., Oxford, 2000); P. R. Davies , G. J. Brooke , and P. R. Callaway , The Complete World of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2002). Two journals are dedicated exclusively to the scrolls: Revue de Qumrân (1958 ff.), Dead Sea Discoveries (Leiden, 1994 ff.). Works specifically on the relationship between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the NT include M. Black , The Scrolls and...

DEAD SEA SCROLLS

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,797 words

...Renewed Covenant: The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Notre Dame, 1994). James C. VanderKam and Peter Flint , The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (San Francisco, 2004). James C. VanderKam , The Dead Sea Scrolls Today , rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich., 2010). Roland de Vaux , Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls (London, 1973). Geza Vermes , An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls , rev. ed. (Minneapolis, Minn., 1999). Yigael Yadin , The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect (New York, 1985). –LAWRENCE Ḥ...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
966 words

...Tigchelaar, eds., The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (2 vols.; Leiden: Brill, 1997–1998), and Géza Vermès, ed. and trans., The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (rev. ed., London and New York: Penguin, 2004). Secondary Works Cross, Frank Moore . The Ancient Library of Qumran . 3rd ed. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. Magness, Jodi . The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls . Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2002. Schiffman, Lawrence H. , and James C. VanderKam , eds. Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls . 2 vols. New York and...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
204 words

... Sea Scrolls . The term denotes scrolls and fragments discovered at seven sites on the NW and W. shores of the Dead Sea , mainly between 1947 and 1960 ; it is commonly used only of those writings from caves near Qumran. They are referred to by cave number, site, and abbreviated title: 1QH = cave 1, Qumran, Hodayot . From the Qumran caves there are remains of over 850 documents. Some may come from the 3rd cent. bc ; most date from c. 130 bc to ad 50 . They probably once belonged to the library of a Jewish community based on a building at Qumran;...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,138 words

... Sea Scrolls . Since 1947 , hundreds of Hebrew and Aramaic scrolls have been discovered near the Dead Sea , at first in unorganized searches by Bedouins and later in orderly archaeological excavations. The main location where these scrolls were found is Qumran ( Map 12:X5 ), roughly 16 km (10 mi) south of Jericho ; other sites still farther to the south include Murabbaʿât, Seelim, and Masada ( Map 12:X5 ). Some of these locations are more inland, so that the term “Judean Desert Scrolls” is more appropriate than “Dead Sea Scrolls.” In eleven caves at...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Neil Asher Silberman and Sidnie White Crawford

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,173 words

...The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Full History , 2009. Magness, Jodi . The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls , 2002. Martinez, Florentino Garcia . The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated , 1994. Schiffman, Lawrence H. . Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls , 1994. Silberman, Neil Asher . The Hidden Scrolls , 1994. Tov, Emanuel . The Texts from the Judaean Desert (DJD XXXIX), 2002. VanderKam, James C. . The Dead Sea Scrolls Today , 1994. Vaux, Roland de . Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls , 1973. Vermes, Geza . The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
286 words

... Sea Scrolls Documents found in 1947 around Qumran , near the Dead Sea inthe Judaean Desert. The Jewish sect to which these documents belonged has been identified by some scholars with the Essenes . The sect had its own solar calendar instead of the normal lunar calendar , it had a monastic social order; great emphasis was placed on the life of purity; and, most startling of all, it was completely opposed to the Jerusalem Temple which it termed an abomination. The scrolls of the biblical books found in Qumran, some complete, others only as fragments,...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Martin David Goodman

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
611 words

... Sea Scrolls , documents made of leather and papyrus, and, in one case, of copper, found between 1947 and 1956 in caves near Qumran by the Dead Sea. The scrolls, written by Jews , are mostly in Hebrew and Aramaic, but a small number are in Greek. Many are fragments of biblical texts from the Old Testament and from Jewish religious compositions otherwise only preserved through Christian manuscript traditions. The scrolls were written in the last centuries bc and 1st cent. ad . Of particular significance in the study of Judaism in this period are the...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Alex P. Jassen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,945 words

... Sea Scrolls This article presents an overview of the legal texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls and examines their relationship to biblical law. It surveys the legal texts from Qumran and provides an outline of their contents and distinctive features. Emphasis is placed on examining the ways in which the legal texts expand biblical law to meet the needs of Second Temple period society and the specifically sectarian world of the community that produced and preserved the scrolls. Biblical Law and the Dead Sea Scrolls. For the Dead Sea Scrolls community, the...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
9,563 words

..., and Uriel Rappaport , eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research . Leiden, 1992. Eisenman, Robert , and James M. Robinson . A Facsimile of the Dead Sea Scrolls . 2 vols. Washington, D.C., 1991. Contains nearly 1,800 photographs of virtually all unpublished materials from caves 4 and 11. See as well, Emanuel Tov et al., eds., The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judean Desert (Leiden, 1993). Eisenman, Robert , and Michael O. Wise . The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered: The First Complete...

Dead Sea Scrolls

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Ken M. Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,815 words
Illustration(s):
4

.... The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition . 2 vols. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1997–1998. Includes English translations. Lim, T. H. , and E. Tov , eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1997. Parry, Donald W. , and Emanuel Tov . The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader. 6 vols. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2004–2005. Includes English translations. Sukenik, E. L. The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University . Jerusalem: Magnes, 1955. Tov, E. The Dead Sea Scrolls on...

Dead Sea scrolls

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
718 words

... Sea scrolls Documents first discovered accidentally in 1947 on the west side of the Dead Sea, in what was the country of * Jordan and which has been the Israeli‐occupied West Bank, where a Jewish monastic community was established near * Qumran in the 1st cents. bce and ce . The members were probably * Essenes or an Essene sect separate from the main body (though it has also been suggested that they were * Zealots ), and there was a strict discipline of celibacy and * asceticism , with frequent rites of * purification by water. The leader of...

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