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Cynics

A member of a school of ancient Greek philosophers founded by Antisthenes, marked by an ostentatious contempt for ease and pleasure. The movement flourished in the 3rd century bc and ...

cynics

cynics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62 words

... Resemblances have been detected between the teachings and way of Jesus and those of the Cynics, a philosophical sect founded by a follower of Socrates ( c. 400 bce ) e.g. in Matt. 6: 25–34; and Paul was not averse to using Cynic motifs in connection with pastoral care (1 Thess. 2: 18) and the burdens of marriage (1 Cor. 7:...

Cynics

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
35 words

... School of philosophy founded ( c .440 bc ) by Antisthenes, a pupil of Socrates . Cynics considered virtue to be in knowledge and action and rejected material pleasures. Its teachings were developed by Diogenes . See also ...

Cynics

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
394 words

...of Cynic positions on material possessions, individual ethics, and politics provided the definition of other philosophies' positions: apart from the Stoics, the Epicureans ( see epicurus ), though greatly influenced by Cynic ethics, polemicized against Cynicism. Diogenes and Crates are generally celebrated in popular philosophy. Cynic ethics influenced Christian asceticism .  To maximize their audience the Cynics (despite avowed rejection of literature) wrote more voluminously and variously than any ancient philosophical school. The Cynic diatribe ,...

Cynics

Cynics   Reference library

John L. Moles

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
552 words

...within Cynicism, though ‘hard’ Cynics (adherents of the original prescription, found at all periods) can be distinguished from ‘soft’ (who compromised varyingly with existing social and political institutions), practical Cynicism from literary, and Cynics (in whatever sense) from the Cynic-influenced. ‘Hard’ Cynicism was expounded by Diogenes and (to some extent) Crates of Thebes ( d. c .288 /285 bc ). From 320 to 220 bc ‘soft’ Cynicism was represented by Onesicritus, whose History portrayed Alexander the Great as a Cynic philosopher-king; the...

Cynics

Cynics ((‘the doggish’))   Reference library

John L. Moles

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
771 words

...development within Cynicism, though ‘hard’ Cynics (adherents of the original prescription, found at all periods) can be distinguished from ‘soft’ (who compromised varyingly with existing social and political institutions), practical Cynicism from literary, and Cynics (in whatever sense) from the Cynic-influenced. ‘Hard’ Cynicism was expounded by Diogenes and (to some extent) Crates (2) . From 320–220 bc ‘soft’ Cynicism was represented by Onesicritus , whose History portrayed Alexander (3) the Great as Cynic philosopher-king; the eclectics Bion (1)...

Cynics

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
102 words

... (Greek, kynikos , dog-like) The ‘dog philosophers’, probably called after the nickname of Diogenes of Sinope , their most prominent member and founder. In the ancient world, dogs were symbols of lack of shame. For Cynics the virtuous life consisted in an independence achieved by mastery over one’s desires and needs: happiness demands that one desires nothing and hence lacks nothing. To encourage people to renounce the desires engendered by civilization and convention the Cynics waged a crusade of antisocial mockery, hoping to show by their own example...

Cynics

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Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...meant that Cynic tenets, often in a modified form, influenced Greco-Roman society during the period of Stoicism's philosophical dominance. Indeed, imperial Stoics often presented Cynics as models of the ideal wise man. Furthermore, there was a revival of Cynicism during the early empire, so that Cynics once again became conspicuous during this period and produced pseudonymous letters in the names of the early Cynics and other ancient philosophers. In recent years, A. J. Malherbe has convincingly demonstrated that Paul was well aware of Cynic traditions and...

Cynics

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
164 words

... A sect of ancient Greek philosophers popularly thought to have been established by Diogenes , though his mentor, Antisthenes of Athens, should perhaps be accorded the title of founder. Since the Cynics were never a formal school, with no fully defined philosophy, considerable differences emerged amongst Diogenes’ disciples, who adopted only those ideas which appealed to them. Crates of Thebes was his most faithful follower: he demonstrated how in troubled times happiness was possible for the man who gave up material possessions, kept his needs to an...

Cynics

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
840 words

...moralists, not nihilists. ‘Cynic’ once meant ‘one who lives a dog's life: shamelessly, and without any settled home’. Now, drawing on an anecdote of Diogenes' searching in daylight with a lantern for a genuinely ‘just’ man, cynics despise all moral or altruistic claims. Some part of this derives from the poor reputation of Cynics during the early centuries ad , described by such satirists as Lucian . But the major explanation lies in the natural assumption that those who despise our values must despise all values. Cynics, like early Christians, were...

Cynics

Cynics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
398 words

... [Gk. cynikos , ‘dog-like’] In Greece, the ‘dog-like’ philosophers who followed the principles of the first Cynic philosopher Diogenes of Sinope (but see Cynosarges ). Diogenes had been given his nickname Cyōn, ‘the dog’, because, by applying his philosophy of ‘living according to nature’, i.e. living the life of a primitive human or an animal, in the most literal sense possible, his behaviour was as completely without shame as that of a dog. The Cynics developed no elaborate philosophical system. Cynicism was not so much a philosophy, since there...

Cynics and Cynicism

Cynics and Cynicism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,566 words

... Seneca the Younger bear comparison with Teles, and exemplify at times what some scholars call “Cynic diatribe,” as if in imitation of the sermons delivered by real Cynics on the streets. A collection of letters addressed by famous older Cynics to their likely interlocutors was probably compiled in early imperial times from Cynic commonplaces and anecdotes. Dio Chrysostom uses Diogenes of Sinope as his heroic protagonist; Lucian uses Diogenes and other early Cynics as one guise for his intellectual hero. At the same time, Lucian, Athenaeus, and others point out...

Cynics

Cynics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
318 words

... Formed in the mid-80s in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and initially featuring Gregg Kostelich (guitar, ex-Jetsons; Prototype), Bill von Hagen (drums, ex-Puke, Cardboards, 24 Minutes), Mark Keresman (vocals) and Pam Reyner (bass, ex-Rumhounds), the Cynics are among America’s most underrated psyche rock/garage punk bands. They formed in 1984 and played their first show with Clay Allison in June of that year, making their debut on vinyl with ‘69’. Next came ‘Painted My Heart’, by which time they had expanded to a five-piece. A new bass player, Steve Magee,...

Cynics

Cynics  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
Formed in the mid-80s in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and initially featuring Gregg Kostelich (guitar, ex-Jetsons; Prototype), Bill von Hagen (drums, ex-Puke, Cardboards, 24 Minutes), Mark Keresman ...
Cynics

Cynics  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A member of a school of ancient Greek philosophers founded by Antisthenes, marked by an ostentatious contempt for ease and pleasure. The movement flourished in the 3rd century bc and revived in the ...
Cynic

Cynic   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The ancient school of Greek philosophers known as the Cynics was founded by antisthenes and made famous by his pupil diogenes . They were ostentatiously contemptuous of ease, luxury or wealth and of convention. The name is derived either from their dog-like, slovenly and uncouth habits or from the fact that Antisthenes held his school in the Gymnasium called Cynosarges (‘white dog’), from an incident when a white dog carried away part of a victim that was being offered to hercules . Cynic tub The tub from which Diogenes lectured. Similarly the ‘porch’...

Cynic's Word Book

Cynic's Word Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
10 words

...'s Word Book , original title of Bierce 's The Devil's Dictionary...

Maximus the Cynic

Maximus the Cynic (4th cent.)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
83 words

...the Cynic ( 4th cent. ), intruded Bp. of Constantinople . After a disreputable career at Alexandria , in 379 he went to Constantinople. One night in 380 when Gregory of Nazianzus was ill, Maximus was consecrated to the see. The Council of Constantinople in 381 declared that he ‘neither is nor was a bishop’. For a short time he was supported in the W. He professed to combine belief in the Cynic philosophy with profession of the Nicene...

Diogenes the Cynic

Diogenes the Cynic (404–323 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
155 words

...the Cynic ( 404–323 bc ). Greek philosopher who seems to have held that only the distinction between virtue and vice matters, and that other conventionally acknowledged distinctions (e.g. between public and private, Greek and barbarian, raw and cooked, yours and mine) should therefore be disdained. He propagated these views, occasionally by argument (‘All things belong to the gods; the gods are friends to the wise; friends hold in common what belongs to them; so all things belong to the wise’), but much more frequently by action: a characteristic...

Diogenes the Cynic

Diogenes the Cynic (c.412/403 –c.324/321 bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
990 words

...the Cynic ( c.412/403 –c.324/321 bce ), Cynic philosopher . Diogenes of Sinope was the emblematic Cynic philosopher among Greeks and Romans from his own time to late antiquity, and then again in the Renaissance. Our ancient sources for his life, beliefs, and way of teaching are almost entirely anecdotes, notoriously difficult to authenticate and sometimes open-ended in their meaning. According to his biography in Diogenes Laertius (6.20–81), Diogenes wrote dialogues, letters, and tragedies; although none of his writings survives, they could have been...

Maximus the Cynic

Maximus the Cynic (4th cent.)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
286 words

...Maximus the Cynic ( 4th cent. ) , intruded Bp. of Constantinople. After a disreputable life at Alexandria , he conceived the idea of supplanting St Gregory Nazianzen , and with the support of Peter II , Bp. of Alexandria, he went to Constantinople in 379 . He ingratiated himself with Gregory, who even pronounced a panegyric on him (calling him ‘Hero’ acc. to St Jerome ). One night in 380 , when Gregory was ill, Maximus was consecrated to the see. He then set out immediately for Thessalonica to secure the recognition of the Emp. Theodosius , but in this...

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