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Critolaus

Of Phaselis, head of the Peripatetic school, was probably an old man when he took part, with Carneades (see academy) and Diogenes the Stoic (see stoicism), in the philosophers' delegation ...

Critolāus

Critolāus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
70 words

... , of Phaselis, head of the Peripatetic school , was probably an old man when he took part, with Carneades ( see academy ) and Diogenes the Stoic ( see stoicism ), in the philosophers' delegation to Rome in 155 bc . His headship of the school marks a renewal of its scientific and philosophical activities. He defended the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world against the Stoic periodic...

Critolaus

Critolaus   Reference library

Robert William Sharples

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
254 words

... ( RE 3), of Phaselis , head of the Peripatetic school . His dates are unknown, but he was probably an old man when he took part, with Carneades the Academic ( see academy ) and Diogenes (3) the Stoic ( see stoicism ), in the philosophers’ delegation to Rome in 156 / 5 bc . His headship of the school marks a renewal of its scientific and philosophical activities. The fragments of his writings show some acquaintance with Aristotelian doctrines, though much of it may be second-hand. He defended the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the...

Critolaus

Critolaus  

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Of Phaselis, head of the Peripatetic school, was probably an old man when he took part, with Carneades (see academy) and Diogenes the Stoic (see stoicism), in the philosophers' delegation to Rome in ...
Gaius Acilius

Gaius Acilius  

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(RE 4)Roman senator and historian, who interpreted for Carneades, Diogenes (3), andCritolaus in the senate in 155 bc, wrote a history of Rome, in Greek, from early Italian times ...
philosophers and politics

philosophers and politics  

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Plato in his Republic regarded good government as unattainable ‘unless either philosophers become kings in our cities or those whom we now call kings and rulers take to the pursuit of philosophy’. He ...
Carneades

Carneades  

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(c.214–129 bc)The most prominent member of the later Academy after Arcesilaus. Carneades was a distinguished sceptic, famous (especially through the report by Cicero) for impressive speeches at Rome ...
Acilius (RE 4), Gaius

Acilius (RE 4), Gaius   Reference library

Alexander Hugh McDonald

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
132 words

...( RE 4), Gaius , Roman senator and historian , who interpreted for Carneades , Diogenes (3) , and Critolaus in the senate in 155 bc , wrote a history of Rome, in Greek, from early Italian times to his own age, certainly to 184 bc (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3. 67. 5); it appeared c. 142 (Livy, Per. 53: reading C. Acilius ). His senatorial tradition is seen in the anecdote of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Hannibal (Livy 35. 14. 5). His work was reproduced in Latin by a Claudius, probably Claudius Quadrigarius , who would then have...

philosophers and politics

philosophers and politics   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
372 words

...was finally fulfilled. Philosophers more commonly served their cities by educating and advising rulers or serving as ambassadors. In 155 bc when the Athenians wanted the senate to reduce a fine imposed on the city, they sent as envoys the Stoic Diogenes , the Peripatetic Critolaus , and the Academic Carneades . They succeeded in their missions, but also gave such attractive lectures that Porcius Cato (1) objected that they were seducing Roman youth from traditional values. The charge of corrupting the youth, already employed against Socrates , was...

Carnĕădēs

Carnĕădēs   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
377 words

...of the sceptical Academy . He studied philosophy in the Academy, but also took lessons in Stoic dialectic from Diogenes of Babylon. Carneades became scholarch some time before 155 , when he was sent by Athens on an embassy to Rome together with Diogenes and the Peripatetic Critolaus. Carneades was famous for his dialectical and rhetorical skills. He attracted many students, and his lectures drew large audiences. He left no writings, but his arguments were recorded. Carneades used the method of arguing for and against any given view to criticize all dogmatic...

Carneades

Carneades   Quick reference

Gisela Striker

Who's Who in the Classical World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
514 words

.... He studied philosophy in the Academy under Hegesinus, but also took lessons in Stoic dialectic from Diogenes of Babylon. Carneades became scholarch some time before 155 , when he was sent by Athens on an embassy to Rome together with the Stoic Diogenes and the Peripatetic Critolaus. He resigned as head of the Academy in 137/6 and was succeeded by a younger namesake. Carneades was famous for his dialectical and rhetorical skills. He attracted many students, and his lectures drew large audiences, even from the schools of the orators. He left no writings,...

philosophers and politics

philosophers and politics   Reference library

Miriam T. Griffin

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
615 words

... Antigonus Gonatas (unsuccessfully) as a general. Another Stoic, Sphaerus, advised King Cleomenes of Sparta (Plut. Cleom . 11). In 155 bc when the Athenians wanted the senate to reduce a fine imposed on the city, they sent as envoys the Stoic Diogenes, the Peripatetic Critolaus, and the Academic Carneades. They succeeded in their missions, but also gave such attractive lectures that Cato the Elder objected that they were seducing Roman youth away from traditional values (Plut. Cato 22). The charge of corrupting the youth, already employed against ...

Peripatetic school

Peripatetic school   Reference library

David John Furley

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
636 words

...on his work, many of whom were themselves Neoplatonists; see neoplatonism . Fragments of Dicaearchus , Aristoxenus , Clearchus, Demetrius (3) , Straton, Lyco, Ariston, Heraclides (1) Ponticus , Eudemus , Phaenias , Chamaeleon , Praxiphanes , Hieronymus (2) , and Critolaus in F. Wehrli , Die Schule des Aristoteles (1944–59; 2nd edn. 1967–78; texts with Ger. comm.). K. O. Brink , RE Suppl. 7 (1940); J. P. Lynch , Aristotle's School: A Study of a Greek Educational Institution (1972); H. B. Gottschalk , ANRW 2. 36. 2 (1987); R. Sorabji ...

philosophers and politics

philosophers and politics   Reference library

Miriam T. Griffin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
721 words

... (unsuccessfully) as a general. Another Stoic, Sphaerus , advised King Cleomenes (2) of Sparta ( Plut. Cleom. 11). In 155 bc when the Athenians wanted the senate to reduce a fine imposed on the city, they sent as envoys the Stoic Diogenes (3) , the Peripatetic Critolaus and the Academic Carneades . They succeeded in their missions, but also gave such attractive lectures that Cato (Censorius) objected that they were seducing Roman youth away from traditional values ( Plut. Cato 22). The charge of corrupting the youth, already employed...

Carneades

Carneades   Reference library

Gisela Striker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
586 words

...studied philosophy in the Academy under Hegesinus, but also took lessons in Stoic dialectic from Diogenes (3) of Babylon. Carneades became scholarch some time before 155 , when he was sent by Athens on an embassy to Rome together with the Stoic Diogenes and the Peripatetic Critolaus . He resigned as head of the Academy in 137 / 6 and was succeeded by a younger namesake. Carneades was famous for his dialectical and rhetorical skills. He attracted many students, and his lectures drew large audiences, even from the schools of the orators. He left no...

Lyceum

Lyceum   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,535 words

... 86 bce when the Roman general Sulla sacked Athens, no further scholarch is known. The strengths of the Lyceum were developed further in Alexandria, but this did not include Peripatetic philosophy. The only Peripatetic philosopher of the second century worth mentioning is Critolaus of Phaselis. Several biographers and historians of the third and second centuries who were resident in Alexandria are labeled in our sources as Peripatetics: Satyrus of Callatis, Hermippus of Smyrna, Sotion of Alexandria, Agatharchides of Cnidus. This may imply a rather loose...

Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy   Reference library

Brad Inwood

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
818 words

...in physics and the sciences; in the conventional historiography of ancient philosophy its importance is often and unjustifiably slighted during the Hellenistic period, but the impact of Peripatetics in the 2nd and 1st cents. bc was considerable, especially in ethics ( see critolaus ) and physics. A. A. Long and D. N. Sedley , The Hellenistic Philosophers (1987); K. Algra and others, The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy (1999). Brad...

philosophy

philosophy (‘love of knowledge or wisdom’)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
1,198 words

...and part of Asia Minor in the second. At first Rome regarded Greek philosophy with some suspicion, and fears of its possibly subversive effects led to the temporary banishment of Greek philosophers in 173 and again in 161 bc . In 155 Carneades , Diogenes of Babylon, and Critolaus, the heads respectively of the Academic, Stoic, and Peripatetic schools of philosophy in Athens, were sent on an embassy to Rome (to appeal against a large fine imposed by the Romans on Athens), and, giving lectures there, made a great impression. A little later Scipio...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
11,547 words

...on Greek philosophy extensively, as did many Latin poets after them. By then, leading Greek philosophers were frequently in contact with Rome, beginning with the famous Athenian delegation in 155 bce when the heads of the three leading schools—Carneades from the Academy, Critolaus from the Lyceum, and the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon—visited the city. From then on, members of the ruling elite and those who aspired to join them increasingly turned to philosophy for instruction and advice. Scipio Aemilianus had the Stoic Panaetius accompany him on his tour of...

Opponents, Roman Catholic

Opponents, Roman Catholic   Reference library

Jared Wicks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,467 words

...they denied that free choice is active in a good work, ‘for it is done wholly and completely ( totum et totaliter ) by God.’ Then Luther, becoming insane, totally denied free will, ‘because all things happen out of absolute necessity’—something the stupid Stoics, Empedocles, Critolaus, Diodorus and others in error used to say.” 52 Eck cites 1 Corinthians 7:37, on standing firm in one’s resolve, not being compelled but having power of will, adding, “The madman Luther imposes necessity. Paul denies it. Whom shall we believe?” 53 The polemic extends into the...

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