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Cratylus

Subject: Philosophy

(5th c. bc) Greek philosopher, sometimes thought to have been a teacher of Plato before Socrates. He is famous for capping the doctrine of Heraclitus that you cannot step into ...

Cratylus

Cratylus   Reference library

William David Ross

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
128 words

... , a younger contemporary of Socrates . He pressed the doctrine of Heraclitus ( 1 ) to an extreme point, denying to things even the slightest fixity of nature. According to Aristotle he was Plato (1) 's first master in philosophy, and Plato drew the conclusion that since fixity does not exist in the sensible world there must be a non-sensible world to account for the possibility of knowledge. Plato in his Cratylus makes Cratylus maintain that falsehood is impossible and that all words in all languages are naturally appropriate to the meanings...

Cratylus

Cratylus   Reference library

E. L. Hussey

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
192 words

... ( fl. c. 400 bc ). A self-declared follower of Heraclitus , who maintained that all sensible particulars are changing in every respect all the time. According to Aristotle ( Metaphysics 987 a 32– b 1), this doctrine influenced the young Plato . Also according to Aristotle ( Metaphysics 1010 a 10–15), Cratylus drew radical conclusions about the impossibility of reference to things in the perceptible world: he ‘rebuked Heraclitus for saying that you cannot step twice into the same river; he himself [Cratylus] thought you cannot even step into it...

Cratylus

Cratylus (5th)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
208 words

...represented in Plato’s dialogue Cratylus as holding a doctrine of the ‘right name’ of things, although the proper conclusion of his views was that the flux cannot be captured in words. According to Aristotle ( Metaphysics Γ ‎, iv. 1010 ) he eventually held that since ‘regarding that which everywhere in every respect is changing nothing could truly be affirmed’, the right course is just to stay silent and wag one’s finger. Plato’s theory of forms can be seen in part as a reaction against the impasse to which Cratylus was...

Cratylus

Cratylus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
64 words

... , a younger contemporary of Socrates . He pressed the doctrine of Heraclitus to an extreme point, denying to things even the slightest fixity of nature. Acc. to Aristotle he was Plato 's first master in philosophy, and Plato drew the conclusion that since fixity does not exist in the sensible world, there must be a non‐sensible world to account for the possibility of...

Cra'tylus

Cra'tylus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
156 words

... Dialogue by Plato on the origin of language and on etymology, much of it written in a teasing style that makes interpretation difficult. The date too is hard to fix. Cratylus was a follower of the philosopher Heracleitus , from whom Socrates learned that ‘everything is in flux’. In the dialogue, Cratylus claims that names of things in all languages have by their nature ( physis ) affinity with their objects, whereas Hermogenes argues that they are merely labels imposed by convention, nomos , and can be changed at will ( see nomos–physis...

Cratylus

Cratylus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(5th c. bc)Greek philosopher, sometimes thought to have been a teacher of Plato before Socrates. He is famous for capping the doctrine of Heraclitus that you cannot step into the same river twice by ...
Pedro Simón Abril

Pedro Simón Abril  

(c.1530–c.1595),Spanish humanist, born in Alcaraz (La Mancha). Abril taught for 25 years at Zaragoza University. His translations into Castilian included Plato's Cratylus and Gorgias, Aristotle's ...
etymologica

etymologica  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The etymologies in Plato (1)'s Cratylus influenced Hellenistic thinkers, especially Stoics (see Stoicism), and writings ‘On Etymologies’ or the like are attested for Chrysippus, Heraclides (1) ...
Antisthenes

Antisthenes  

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(c.445–c.360 bc)A devoted follower of Socrates, but also considered (e.g. by Diogenes Laertius) to be an important influence on the first famous Cynic, Diogenes of Sinope. He shared much of Socrates' ...
form and matter

form and matter  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
In Aristotelian thought, the structure or nature that is imposed upon undifferentiated materia prima to make the different kinds of substance in the world. See also hylomorphism, matter.
Heraclitus

Heraclitus  

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Overview Page
(c.500 bc),Greek philosopher. He believed that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion, everything being in a (harmonious) process of constant change.
ancient linguistics

ancient linguistics  

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Overview Page
1. Linguistics arose in western antiquity from two rather different sources: philosophical debate on the origin and nature of language, and the practical requirements of textual criticism and the ...
Plato

Plato  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(c. 429–347bce). Greek philosopher.One of his shorter dialogues, the Cratylus, is the earliest full discussion in the Western tradition of the relations between words and things. He was also ...
Plato

Plato (c. 429–347bce)   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
57 words

...( c. 429–347 bce ). Greek philosopher. One of his shorter dialogues, the Cratylus , is the earliest full discussion in the Western tradition of the relations between words and things. He was also the first ancient author to speak of tekhnē grammatikē and to indicate the distinction between what were later called “subject” and “predicate.” Anna Morpurgo...

Heraclitus

Heraclitus   Reference library

Richard L. Gregory

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
158 words

...and ‘Theology’. It was placed in the Temple of Artemis, and it has been suggested that it was deliberately written so obscurely as to be intelligible only to aristocrats and scholars. Heraclitus' philosophy is based on unity in change; hence the famous remark of his follower Cratylus that ‘you cannot step twice into the same river’. Apparent permanence of objects is attributed to conflicting movements or flows; the essential element is fire, out of which all else comes and perishes. In modern times this emphasis on change, and on permanence as illusion, is...

Abril, Pedro Simón

Abril, Pedro Simón   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
165 words

...Pedro Simón ( c. 1530– c. 1595 ), Spanish humanist, born in Alcaraz (La Mancha). Abril taught for 25 years at Zaragoza University. His translations into Castilian included Plato's Cratylus and Gorgias , Aristotle's Politics ( 1584 ) and Logic ( 1587 ), speeches by Aechines and Demosthenes , letters by Cicero , the comedies of Terence ( 1577 ), Euripides' Medea , and Aristophanes' Pluto ; these translations were instrumental in popularizing classical literature and thought in sixteenth-century Spain. Abril also wrote a pedagogical...

etymology

etymology   Reference library

Robert Maltby

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,465 words

...to provide information about the true nature of things. By the late 5th cent. bc the question of the relationship between words and the things they named had become a matter of debate amongst the sophists . The main statement of this controversy occurs in Plato's Cratylus , where Cratylus, a follower of Heraclitus (1), argues for physis against Hermogenes, who supports the theory of nomos . Socrates himself, perhaps with some irony, takes up an intermediate position, suggesting that some words may originally have been significant, but that their form...

Hope, A. D.

Hope, A. D.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... The Age of Reason ( 1985 ). The Drifting Continent, and Other Poems ( 1979 ) included several comic bush ballads. His works of literary criticism include The Cave and the Spring ( 1965 ), Native Companions ( 1974 ), which gathered articles over forty years, and The New Cratylus ( 1979 ). As a poet and critic Hope's position has always been enigmatic: learned and traditional in his references, techniques, and symbolism, he has also demonstrated an iconoclastic relish in social and moral matters. Much of his energy in all his writings has been devoted...

Heraclitus of Ephesus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (d. after 480)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
229 words

...was probably more interested in measured, balanced processes. The more extreme implications of the doctrine of flux (e.g. the impossibility of categorizing things truly) do not seem consistent with his general epistemology and view of meaning, and were left to his follower Cratylus to develop. The primacy of the divine, eternal logos and the contrast between the unstable world of appearance and the order behind it exercised tremendous influence on Plato , and then on the Stoics...

nomos–physis antithesis

nomos–physis antithesis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
251 words

...the weak, who are thereby able to curb nature's intention that might is right. In the atmosphere of revolution in Athens at the end of the fifth century bc ( see oligarchy ) this argument was seen to have political implications. See also analogy and anomaly ; Antiphon ; Cratylus ; Cynics ; law, natural...

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