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covenant

(Old French covenant, agreement, from covenir, to agree or meet, from Latin convenire, to come together) (1) A formal undertaking, agreement or promise made in a ...

Covenanters

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
41 words

... . Scottish Presbyterians who expressed their convictions through the signing of covenants. In particular they signed the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643 , defending the Reformed faith and in effect rejecting the imposition of episcopacy...

Covenanters

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
99 words

... . Bodies of Presbyterians in Scotland who bound themselves by oath to maintain the cause of their religion. Various small covenants were signed between 1556 and 1562 , leading up to the King’s Confession of 1581 . Charles I’s attempt to introduce the Scottish Prayer Book of 1637 prompted the National Covenant of 1638 . After the outbreak of the Civil War the English Parliament made an alliance with the Scots in terms of the Solemn League and Covenant ( 1643 ; q.v.). The persecution of Presbyterians in Scotland between 1661 and ...

Covenanters

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Edward Youansamouth

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
269 words

...which satisfied all but the most extreme Covenanters. These formed the Cameronian sect, which was joined to the Free Church in 1876. Edward Youansamouth J. Barr , The Scottish Covenanters (Glasgow, 1946). I. B. Cowan , The Scottish Covenanters, 1660–1668 (London, 1976). D. Stevenson , The Scottish Revolution 1637–1644: The Triumph of the Covenanters (Newton Abbot, 1973). A. I. Macinnes , Charles I and the Making of the Covenanting Movement 1625–1641 (Newton Abbot, 1991). See also general works on the history of...

Covenanters

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
57 words

... 17th‐century Scottish Presbyterians who supported the National Covenant ( 1638 ) to defend their religion, especially those extremists who fought violently against the reimposition of bishops in the Church of Scotland after the Restoration. They are described from opposing viewpoints in Walter Scott 's Old Mortality and John Galt 's Ringan Gilhaize...

Covenanters

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
57 words

... 17th‐century Scottish Presbyterians who supported the National Covenant ( 1638 ) to defend their religion, especially those extremists who fought violently against the reimposition of bishops in the Church of Scotland after the Restoration. They are described from opposing viewpoints in Walter Scott 's Old Mortality and John Galt 's Ringan Gilhaize...

covenanters

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Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
109 words

... . As supporters of the Scottish National Covenant ( 1638 ) they sought to preserve presbyterianism in Scotland and oppose royal interference, in particular imposition of the ‘Laudian’ Prayer Book ( 1637 ). After defeating Charles I in the Bishops’ wars ( 1639–40 ), they forced him to accept presbyterianism in Scotland. The New Model Army’s sectarianism thwarted their attempt by the Solemn League and Covenant with Parliament ( 1643 ) to impose it on England. Though after Charles I’s execution Charles II signed the covenant ( 1650 ), ...

Covenanters

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
74 words

... Scottish Presbyterians pledged by the National Covenant ( 1638 ) to uphold their religion. They opposed Charles I 's efforts to impose an Anglican episcopal system and supported Parliament in the English Civil Wars , in exchange for a promise to introduce Presbyterianism in England and Ireland. The Scots changed sides when this promise was broken, but were defeated by Oliver Cromwell . Covenanter revolts against Charles II were suppressed, but Presbyterianism was restored in Scotland In 1688...

Covenanters

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The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
829 words

... was the popular term for those who resisted the Restoration church settlement in Scotland. The Restoration regime in Scotland, which came to power in 1660–2 , abolished the Covenants ( see National Covenant and Solemn League and Covenant ) and all legislation enacted by Covenanting governments, whilst re‐establishing crown control of the Church of Scotland; however, the issues of doctrine and worship which formed a key part of the original Covenanting movement did not resurface. The struggle now focused fully on the extent to which the crown could...

covenanters

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
78 words

... As supporters of the Scottish National Covenant ( 1638 ) they sought to preserve presbyterianism in Scotland. After defeating Charles I in the Bishops' wars ( 1639–40 ), they forced him to accept presbyterianism in Scotland. Though after Charles I's execution Charles II signed the covenant ( 1650 ), Cromwell 's victorious army forced the Scots to tolerate sectarianism. Revival of Scottish episcopacy ( 1662 ) was unpopular; presbyterianism was restored ( 1690...

Covenanters

Covenanters  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An adherent of the National Covenant (1638) or the Solemn League and Covenant (1643), upholding the organization of the Scottish Presbyterian Church.
covenant

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Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
104 words

... ‘The Covenant ( pacte ) of the League of Nations is believed to be the first use of the term “Covenant” to describe a treaty, and probably owes its existence to the Presbyterian origin of President Woodrow Wilson . It has also been applied to the draft Covenant of Human Rights’: McNair , Law of Treaties (2nd ed.), 25. See also the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights ( 993 U.N.T.S. 3 ; see Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, International Covenant on ) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (...

covenant

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A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
91 words

... A covenant, or deed of covenant, is a legal document formally embodying an agreement. From the time of Edward III in the fourteenth century, a writ of covenant (alleging breach of a covenant by one party to it) could not be enforced in the central courts without the evidence of a deed under seal. This gave rise to the modern meaning of ‘covenant’, which is a written agreement executed as a deed and witnessed. The term may also be applied to a particular undertaking contained or implied in the...

Covenant

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
135 words

... Judaism In the Bible, covenants were established between individuals, between marriage partners and between God and Israel . Circumcision itself is frequently known as berit (covenant). Christianity The term ‘New Testament’ (Lat., testamentum = ‘covenant’) underlines how early Christians saw themselves in a new covenant. ‘Covenant theology’, or ‘federal theology’ (Lat. foedus , ‘covenant’) , was a particular development of the New Testament doctrine in Calvinism in the 16th–17th cents. Islam The Qurʾān speaks of a covenant made in...

Covenant

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...name ‘Covenanter’ is particularly applied to those who adhered to the Covenants after they were declared unlawful in 1662 . Between the restoration and the Revolution of 1688 they were harried and proscribed but exhibited a brave and often fanatical resistance. See cameronians . Covenant of salt, A A covenant that could not be broken. As salt was a symbol of incorruption, it symbolized perpetuity. It is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord unto thee and to thy seed with thee. Abrahamic Covenant, The See under abraham . Ark of the Covenant, The...

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A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A promise made in a deed . Such a promise can be enforced by the parties to it as a contract, even if the promise is gratuitous: for example, if A covenants to pay B £100 per month, B can enforce this promise even without having done anything in return. Covenants were formerly used to minimize income tax by transferring income from taxpayers to non-taxpayers, such as children or charities; however, since the introduction of the gift aid system, covenants can no longer be used for tax planning in this way. Covenants may be entered into concerning the...

covenants

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The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . Provisions within a borrowing agreement ( bond indenture ; trust deed ) that the borrower will take certain actions ( affirmative covenants ) or refrain from taking certain actions ( negative or restrictive covenants) in order to safeguard the interests of the lender. Breach of covenant may lead the lender to call the loan or place the security into default (cf. acceleration clause ; technical default ). See negative pledge ; pari passu...

Covenanter

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
161 words

... Originally a Scot who opposed the ecclesiastical innovations of Charles I of England. Drawn from all parts of Scotland and all sections of society, Covenanters subscribed to the National Covenant of 1638 . This was a revised version of a previous covenant (1581), which had been signed by James VI of Scotland. They swore to resist ‘episcopal’ (the church governed by bishops) religious changes, and, in the event of such changes, they set up a full Presbyterian system and defended it in the Bishops’ Wars . They hoped to impose their system on England...

covenant

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Andrew Reeve

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
176 words

... An undertaking about a future action or other performance understood to be binding on the person giving it. A covenant shares certain features with a promise, but the two have been distinguished in various ways. Covenants were legally enforceable when bare promises were not. Thomas Hobbes denied that a mere promise created a (moral) obligation, but argued that a covenant (in certain circumstances) did. For Hobbes, a covenant involved the promise of future performance given in return for a benefit either received or expected, whereas a promise was a...

covenant

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Paul Fiddes

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
350 words

...the Hebrews contrasts the Mosaic covenant of Exodus 24: 8 with a new and better covenant inaugurated by Christ’s life, death, and exaltation (7: 22 and 12: 24). In the period of the Reformation, the relation between God and the Church of Christ was understood in terms of a covenant, and a theology of covenant also often underpinned baptism of infants, who were regarded as included in covenant. Both Anabaptists on the Continent and Dissenting groups in England developed an ecclesiology of the local church based on a covenant between members and God, and...

COVENANT

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
555 words

...in covenants between human parties, God often stands as a witness to the sanctity of the covenant ( Gn. 31.53). Turning to covenants between God and human individuals or groups, one discovers two basic types: unconditional and conditional. Unconditional covenants, like those God made with Noah ( Gn. 9), Abraham ( Gn. 15 and 17), or David (2 Sam. 7 and Jer. 33.19–22) emphasize the seemingly unbreakable divine promise (although in the case of David the unconditionality may not be absolute). The most well known conditional covenant is the one formalized...

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