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Overview

Consumer Movement.

The modern consumer movement arose in the Progressive Era, as citizens concerned about unsafe products and environmental hazards used lobbying, voting, and journalistic exposés to press ...

Consumer Movement.

Consumer Movement.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
447 words

... Movement. The modern consumer movement arose in the Progressive Era , as citizens concerned about unsafe products and environmental hazards used lobbying, voting, and journalistic exposés to press for government protection. In the same vein, the Consumers Union ( 1936 ), publisher of Consumer Reports , tests products for safety, economy, and reliability, to give consumers an objective basis for choice. Some Progressive reformers espoused a different kind of consumer activism, however, mobilizing shoppers' purchasing power to promote social change....

Consumer Movement

Consumer Movement   Reference library

Robert N. Mayer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Movement The modern consumer movement—organizations promoting the economic interests of consumers—arose during the Progressive Era. Citizens concerned about unsafe products and business monopolies used journalistic exposés, “white lists” of approved stores, and lobbying to press for government action. The first enduring consumer organization, the National Consumers League, was formed at the turn of the twentieth century. Led by Florence Kelley, the league pressured for both worker and consumer protections. The consumer protections included passage of...

Consumer Movement.

Consumer Movement.  

The modern consumer movement arose in the Progressive Era, as citizens concerned about unsafe products and environmental hazards used lobbying, voting, and journalistic exposés to press for ...
Plain Language

Plain Language   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,284 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...). • Rudolf Flesch , The Art of Plain Talk ( 1951 ; repr. 1978 ). • Robert Gunning , The Technique of Clear Writing (rev. ed. 1968 ). • Rudolf Flesch , How to Write Plain English: A Book for Lawyers and Consumers ( 1979 ). • How Plain English Works for Business: Twelve Case Studies (U.S. Dep't of Commerce, Office of Consumer Affairs, 1984 ). • Ernest Gowers , The Complete Plain Words ( Sidney Greenbaum & Janet Whitcut eds., 3d ed. 1986 ). • Robert D. Eagleson , Writing in Plain English ( 1990 ). • Plain Language: Principles...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a function of growing disposable incomes amongst a swelling sector of the British population. A consumer boom was in progress, and increased surplus income was going into all manner of goods and services, pleasures and household goods. The purchase of medical services was one manifestation of the growing prosperity of what has been called an early consumer society. The distinctive cultural formation of *spa towns operated precisely at this nexus of *consumerism [19] and medicalization. Historians of eighteenth-century medicine used to present a picture of...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pale), and even children (courtesy of the proliferation of abolitionist *children 's literature) were rallied to the abolitionist banner. On the eve of the *French Revolution , the social and political alliances forged by the anti-slave trade movement enabled the campaign to claim to be the most popular movement demanding major political change. Demands for the abolition of the slave trade—the easiest, most practical entrée to the wider problem of colonial slavery itself—were firmly lodged in parliament and supported by a massive national base well before...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... J. R. Planché ( 1796–1880 ). However, while the British may have created little music of lasting distinction outside the piano repertoire, their activities as consumers were universally acclaimed as prodigious. Music in late-eighteenth-century Britain is commonly thought to have been in rapid transition from aristocratic patronage to bourgeois consumption, in line with general trends in *consumerism [19] . Yet such assumptions generally lack a necessary foundation of historical research; they rest upon supposition about repertoire (what was performed?),...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...male labour force. Moreover, studies of the eighteenth century have increasingly suggested the importance of urbanization, commercial expansion, the extension of communication [ see *postal service ], and the development of a consumer-orientated society as part of a long lead-in to nineteenth-century industrialization [ see *consumerism, 19 ]. But as well as differentiating and attenuating the pace of economic growth, recent work has permitted historians to assess major themes in British social development from the eighteenth century in a way which allows the...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...into the large networks of local, national, and global movement. In ‘The Deserted Village’ Goldsmith presents the double-sidedness of improvement: ‘The country blooms—a garden and a grave.’ And though his central focus is on the process of becoming a poet, he voices the links between the expansion of a global empire, presented as a frightening terrain of silent bats and dark scorpions, and a transformed locality left behind, where ‘even the bare-worn common is denied’. In this population movement from the country to the city, and from city to parts...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...plate workshop, first in Greenwich and after 1807 in Soho, which supplied them with their stock and work on commission. But the largest manufacturers to exploit the neoclassical taste lay outside London, where production could be undertaken on an industrial scale [ see *consumerism, 19 ]. In the early 1760s Matthew *Boulton built his Soho factory at Handsworth, Birmingham, and with his partner John Fothergill redeemed the poor reputation of Birmingham goods by producing ‘toys’ in iron, brass, and silver plate—buckles, buttons, watch-chains, jewellery...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...A corollary to this closer involvement of the state at local levels was the growing importance of popular elections, and the opportunities these provided for political ‘theatre’ and thus for localized participation in national controversies. A second factor was the widening of consumer choice from the 16th and 17th centuries onwards: choice of housing (often in terms of rebuilding), decoration, furnishing, and utensils; choice of clothing or (with the spread of literacy) of reading matter with the ideas which might thus be publicized (see Margaret Spufford ,...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...economy and the attendant growth of mass consumer culture fuelled their success. It was also encouraged by the consolidation of a common school curriculum and the rising numbers of high school and university graduates in the same years: a consequent increase in literacy complemented a growing interest in mastering the specialized knowledge that seemed essential for success. In this climate, new publishers (benefiting from new business methods) had fewer qualms than their predecessors about treating books as consumer goods. When Simon & Schuster started their...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., but this was not followed by other religious works and was not part of a successful Reformation. From the early 18 th century, however, the Irish economy as a whole began to expand and rural areas became more commercialized. The consequent increase in the domestic market for consumer goods, along with the growth in *literacy , created a network of distributors and customers for the book trade. This trend was reinforced by a long period of political stability, in contrast to the wars of the 17 th century. The Dublin book trade expanded continually...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of World War II, most of the communist bloc countries reached their highest book production figures by the 1990s , although problems with distribution were much harder to solve: for example, in 1988 , 27 per cent of books published in Bulgaria did not find their way to consumers, as demand for them did not exist. Different political and economic conditions determined the development of publishing in individual countries. In Bulgaria, publishing and censorship were strictly centralized, unlike in Tito’s Yugoslavia, where publishing relied on state giants...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the introduction of the CD-ROM in 1987 . Already in use in the music industry by 1982 , the CD-ROM was first widely integrated into consumer computers as a storage device in the 1991 Apple Macintosh. A CD could hold nearly 800MB and was far more convenient to handle, store, and transport than an 800K diskette. By 1992 , the first e-book titles began to arrive on CD-ROM, again as freeware, but intended to encourage consumers to purchase computers with new CD-ROM drives. By 1993 , 4 million CD-ROM players had been sold in the US market; large publishers,...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Briggs , eds., Children and Their Books (1989) B. Bader , American Picture Books from Noah’s Ark to The Beast Within (1976) S. Bennett , Trade Bookbinding in the British Isles 1660–1800 (2004) E. Booth and D. Hayes , ‘ Authoring the Brand: Literary Licensing ’, Young Consumers , 7 (2005), 43–5 R. Bottigheimer , The Bible for Children (1996) F. J. H. Darton , Children’s Books in England (1999) K. Drotner , English Children and Their Magazines, 1751–1945 (1988) M. O. Grenby , ‘Chapbooks, Children, and Children’s Literature’, Library , 7/8 (2007),...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the period. Men and boys could explore their masculinity and women and girls their femininity, and Britons of both sexes and all classes could use print to position themselves in relation to the imperial and colonial possessions that their nation claimed. 2 Economics From the consumers’ and producers’ points of view, the economics of the book in Britain went through a dramatic transformation ( see 12 ). Identified in the first half of the 19 th century as a luxury commodity (short *press runs offered at high prices), the book became a commonplace cultural...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...At the same time, within the flow of street-based print was to be found the commercial presence of paid-for material, such as *ballads , *almanacs , newspapers, and *chapbooks ; these represented a significant link between the respectable book trade and the popular consumer. Such products satisfy the definitions of ephemerality: their distribution matched the output of handbills in scale and informality, and their survival was just as uncertain. They formed part of the retail process that ran through the street. The presence of this paid-for...

AIDA

AIDA  

One of many models that analyse and measure the customer's journey from ignorance to purchase. The AIDA model is simple, which partly explains its longevity and widespread use. The model was ...
Nielsen, A C Sr

Nielsen, A C Sr  

(1898–1980)AC Nielsen Co. A pioneer of market research, Nielsen created the concept of market share in 1923. This occurred when his new company began checking food and drugstore shelves to tally ...

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