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Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military

When the framers met in Philadelphia to draft the U.S. Constitution, they were aware that existing models of government placed the war power squarely in the hands of the king. ...

Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military

Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... and Political Basis of War and the Military . When the framers met in Philadelphia to draft the U.S. Constitution, they were aware that existing models of government placed the war power squarely in the hands of the king. John Locke , William Blackstone , and other writers on government regarded the power to go to war as a monarchical prerogative. But when America declared its independence from England, all executive powers were placed in the Continental Congress. The first national constitution, the Articles of Confederation, also concentrated...

Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military

Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military  

Reference type:
Overview Page
When the framers met in Philadelphia to draft the U.S. Constitution, they were aware that existing models of government placed the war power squarely in the hands of the king. ...
Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the dispute over the causes and ideal measure of exchange value. But policy issues could be equally ‘technical’, involving specialized knowledge and terminology. This was true, for example, of currency questions arising out of the suspension of cash payments during the war, of the management and redemption of the public debt, and of the incidence of taxation. Political economists were increasingly called upon as expert witnesses before select committees and royal commissions that dealt with agriculture, emigration, bullion, the consequences of machinery, and...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was the basis of more radical claims for political representation. Both William *Cobbett and more conservative writers shared a view of cottage cosiness, whether to emphasize the dignity of labour, the economics of poor relief, or the *reformation of manners . Many working-class men involved in radical politics, and supported by female dependents, adapted elements of this approach to advance their own independent claims for political rights. Thus by the 1820s, understandings of poverty formulated by the non-poor, and co-opted in distinctive ways by the poor...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as the founder of one of the four great schools of law in Sunni Islam. 30 It was often argued that direct participation in the government would somehow taint the piety of the scholar. In a well-known Tradition, the Prophet Muhammad says, “The nearer a man is to government, the further he is from God.” 31 Islamic law developed as a discipline and a system of sociomoral legitimacy outside of the state structures. The political-military controllers of the state...

Jihad and the Modern World

Jihad and the Modern World   Reference library

Jackson Sherman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,768 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have to avoid the fallacy of assuming that the realities of yesterday pass automatically into today or that the factual or historical assessments of the Muslims of the past constitute authoritative doctrines that are binding on the Muslims of the present. As for non-Muslims, they will have to make a more conscious and sustained effort to conduct their military, economic and political affairs in a fashion that actually confirms the new world order of the United Nations Charter, by respecting the dignity and territorial integrity of Muslim and other nations,...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...since the 17th century have provided for the protection of Protestants within Catholic territory and vice versa. See Thornberry, “Is There a Phoenix in the Ashes?” p. 426 and accompanying notes. 20. See, for example, Articles 1.3 and 55(c) of the United Nations Charter, Article 2 of the African Charter, and Article 2 of the Civil and Political Rights Covenant. For a comprehensive survey and analysis of current treatybased guarantees against such discrimination since the end of World War II, see Capotorti , Study of the Rights ,...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which avoided any resonance of the military, and they were armed with rattle and truncheon rather than the sabre formerly used by Bow Street Runners. Even so, acceptance of the new police was more protracted and uneasy amongst the urban working classes, especially in the docklands and East End of London. Traditional suspicions of the police as enforcers of state tyranny persisted and may even have grown, given the increased role of the new police in the surveillance and arrest of political radicals. A dramatic instance of such popular resentment occurred...

Legislative Authority

Legislative Authority   Reference library

Muhammad Khalaf-Allah

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the approval of all members, both those elected by the people and those selected by the vocational and technical institutions. In this way we combine the old and the new in the counsel system. We take from the old the group of “those in authority,” the people with influence, those who participate in the shura , and from the new we take the constitutional systems forming parliaments or legislative bodies. This is the only way to establish our modern state on the basis of our traditions and in the spirit of our religion. In doing so, we...

Accountability, Parliament, and Ijtihad

Accountability, Parliament, and Ijtihad   Reference library

S. M. Zafar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,013 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...dissolved the Constitutional Assembly [in 1954] when a legal document was introduced into this Assembly weakening the powers of the president. In the 1973 Constitution, there was a specific clause added to the law which weakened the authority of the Assembly and increased the authority of the prime minister, making the latter very powerful. Thus it is clear that parliament plays an important role in limiting the increase in the powers of the current ruler and making him adhere to one [system of] law and keeping the president and prime minister...

1 Maccabees

1 Maccabees   Reference library

U. Rappaport and U. Rappaport

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
27,583 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the vassal princes and to replenish his treasury in preparation for a war against Parthia. ( 15:32–6 ) vv. 33–4 , Simon's response to the demands of the king is extremely important. It may not be a verbatim citation, but it reflects, at least, the current opinion in the Hasmonean court or the author's circle. This response is based on the idea of historical right, as an ideological and legal argument, to justify Hasmonean conquests in the land of Israel. It is in contrast to the legal basis of the rule of the Hellenistic dynasties, which was the...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of small, relatively unimportant towns – some 160 in all by 1600 , and 330 by 1700 . The main centres of Protestant publishing included Wittenberg, Nuremberg, Frankfurt, and Strasburg, while Catholic books were chiefly produced in Cologne, Ingolstadt, Munich, and Dillingen. By 1530 , some 10,000 pamphlets had appeared, totalling nearly 10 million copies, and many more were issued throughout the century. Broadly speaking, these aimed to influence public opinion both on burning social and political issues (such as the Peasants’ War and the threat of...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Christoph Bultmann and Christoph Bultmann

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...constitutional law in 16:18–18:22 . As such, it could be directed against revolutionary tendencies as known from the history of the northern kingdom ( cf. 1 Kings 15:27–8; 16:9–10, 16; 2 Kings 9:14; 15:10, 14, 25, 30; Hos 8:4 ) or it could be a utopian model for the political role of a future Israelite king after the destruction of the Judean monarchy in 587 bce ( cf. Lohfink 1971 a ). However, a more plausible interpretation sees the law related to the diverse reflections within the Deuteronomistic representation of Israel's history (see deut c .2 and ...

2 Maccabees

2 Maccabees   Reference library

R. Doran and R. Doran

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,060 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...9.17.3) and Moses the discoverer of ships, weapons of war, and Egyptian religion (ibid. 9.27.4–6). ( 2:1–15 ) The Temple and Earlier Traditions The narrative now answers the question of who had ordered the sacred fire to be taken to Babylonia, and the answer is Jeremiah. While that story shows the continuity between the first temple and the second, the hiding of the sacred vessels on Mt. Nebo shows the discontinuity. The sacred vessels are returned to God's mountain until the ingathering of the people when, as during the Exodus ( Ex 40:34–8 ) and at the...

intelligence services

intelligence services  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Government organizations dedicated to the collection and evaluation of information, primarily about the intentions of other countries that are seen as adversaries. Such information can be economic, ...
Curtiss-Wright Export Corp., United States v.

Curtiss-Wright Export Corp., United States v.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
299 U.S. 304 (1936), argued 19–20 Nov. 1936, decided 21 Dec. 1936 by vote of 7 to 1; Sutherland for the Court, McReynolds in dissent, Stone not participating. The powers of the federal government in ...
Nineteen Propositions

Nineteen Propositions   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
131 words

.... In the summer of 1642 , Charles I withdrew from London and prepared for war. On 1 June, Parliament sent to him at York nineteen propositions, which were more of a manifesto than a negotiating draft. They demanded complete political and military control. The king’s answer, drafted by Colepeper and Falkland , was a skilful exposition of the case for a balanced constitution. The propositions would ‘destroy all rights and properties, all distinctions of families and merit, and by this means this splendid and excellently distinguished form of government...

Commander in Chief, President as

Commander in Chief, President as   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...do so during the Korean War (when U.S. troops were nominally under UN command). Although such a prohibition did not pass, the constitutional questions involving presidential use of force remain open in the post–Cold War era. [See also Civil‐Military Relations: Civilian Control of the Military ; Congress, War, and the Military ; Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military ; National Defense Acts ; Peacekeeping. ] Clinton Rossiter and Richard Longaker , The Supreme Court and the Commander in Chief , 1976. Richard Pious , The American...

The United States: Politicians, Partisans, and Military Professionals

The United States: Politicians, Partisans, and Military Professionals   Reference library

Peter Feaver and Damon Coletta

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,235 words

...during the Cold War, the political role of the military expanded still further. The burdens of being the sole superpower meant that a large, standing U.S. military remained actively engaged, even after the Cold War ended. Throughout all these periods, however, the military’s political role never removed the constitutional bedrock of civilian supremacy. The military wields latent political influence in part because of its enormous fiscal footprint and in part because it is the national institution in which the public express the highest degree of confidence....

Civil–Military Relations

Civil–Military Relations   Reference library

Mackubin Thomas Owens

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,802 words

...military relations might include: (1) relative harmony between civilians and the military; (2) the effectiveness of the armed forces in executing their missions; and (3) constitutional balance. “Good” civil–military relations would seem to exhibit some combination of the following: (1) comity and a low number of disagreements between civilian and military decision makers; (2) success in war and peace and the absence of policy–strategy “mismatches”; and (3) a lack of encroachment by either party on to civil–military decisions on the “turf” of the other. Some authors...

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