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Constantinople

The former name for Istanbul from ad 330 (when it was given its name by Constantine the Great) to the capture of the city by the Turks in 1453. Constantinople is the anglicized form of ...

Constantinople

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
5 words

... Former name of ...

Constantinople

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
97 words

... (modern Istanbul ). . The chief see of the E. Roman Empire from the 5th cent. By the Treaty of Lausanne ( 1923 ) the Turkish Republic is bound to protect the Greek Christians in Constantinople; but the patriarch must be a Turkish citizen. Constantinople was the venue for three ecumenical councils . Constantinople I ( 381 ) marked the end of the Arian controversy. See also NICENE CREED . Constantinople II ( 553 ) secured the condemnation of Theodore of Mopsuestia , and certain writings of Theodoret and Ibas of Edessa. The council also...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
656 words

... C. Diehl , Constantinople (Paris, 1912). R. Janin , AA, Constantinople byzantine: Développement urbain et répertoire topographique (Archives de l'Orient Chrétien, 4; 1950; 2nd edn., 1964); W. Müller-Wiener , Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion-Konstantinupolis Istanbul bis zum Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts (Tübingen [1977]). D. Talbot Rice , Constantinople: Byzantium—Istanbul (1965). M. Maclagan , The City of Constantinople (Ancient Peoples and Places, 1968). G. Dagron , Naissance d'une Capitale: Constantinople et ses...

Constantinople

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
199 words

... . In 330 Constantine inaugurated Constantinople as his capital on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium. It remained the capital of the E. Empire until it fell to the Turks in 1453 , and was renamed Istanbul. It was the Turkish capital until 1923. Byzantium had a Christian community at least from the 2nd cent., and Constantinople was a Christian city from its inauguration. In 381 its Bishop was given honorary pre-eminence after the Bp. of Rome; in 451, though the Pope objected, patriarchal powers were formally conferred on him. Constantinople...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
900 words

...of gunpowder artillery. Medieval travelers to Constantinople often wrote of their journey for those back home. The earliest surviving accounts are those of Arculf (c. 680) and Liudprand of Cremona (940–968). Marvazi , an Arab naturalist , wrote a detailed description of the city and its people in 1030 . The king of Norway , Sigurd , visited Constantinople on his way to Jerusalem in 1111 , which is recorded in the Heimskringla . The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela, who was in Constantinople in 1170 , provides descriptions of Hagia Sophia ...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
391 words

...over the empire (as Jerome put it, ‘Constantinople is dedicated by denuding every other city’). The bishop of Constantinople soon acquired great prestige, and in 381 the council of Constantinople declared that ‘he should have the primacy of honour after the bishop of Rome because it was the New Rome’. In 425 a number of professorial chairs were established: five and three in Greek and Latin rhetoric , ten in Greek and Latin grammar , one in philosophy, and two in law. But it was a long time before Constantinople managed to attract scholars of the first...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 . Paris, 1974. The most authoritative work on the early history of Constantinople, with superb treatment of the literary sources. Ebersolt, Jean . Constantinople byzantine et les voyageurs du Levant . Paris, 1918. Important source for identification of sites and monuments, with information from Western travelers in Constantinople. Guilland, Rodolphe Joseph . Études de topographie de Constantinople byzantine . 2 vols.Berlin, 1969. Collection of studies on districts and particular monuments of Constantinople...

Constantinople

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Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
756 words

...and Bacchus, the palace of Justinian on the sea of Marmara, and several huge cisterns. See also anicia iuliana . R. Janin , Constantinople byzantine , 2nd edn. (1964); G. Dagron , Naissance d'une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 (1974), and Constantinople imaginaire (1984); C. Mango , Le développement urbain de Constantinople (IV e –VII e siècles) (1985), and Studies on Constantinople (1993). Alan Douglas Edward...

Constantinople

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Jonathan Harris and Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...O. Nicholson , ‘Constantinople: Christian Community, Christian Landscape’, in Kendall et al., eds., Conversion. R. Dagron , ‘Les Moines et la ville: le monachisme à Constantinople jusqu’au concile de Chalcédoine (451)’, TM 4 (1970), 229–76. G. Downey , ‘Earthquakes at Constantinople and Vicinity, ad 342–1454’, Speculum 30 (1955), 596–600. B. Croke , ‘Justinian’s Constantinople’, in M. Maas , ed., Cambridge Companion to the Reign of Justinian (2005), 60–86. Mango , Studies on Constantinople. Bardill , Brickstamps of Constantinople . Mango and ...

Constantinople

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Anthony A. M. Bryer

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,326 words

...; Byzantine Culture: Ancient Synagogues . ] Dagron, Gilbert . Naissance d’une capitale. Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 , 1974. Guilland, Rodolphe . Études de topographie Byzantine, I–II , 1969. Janin, Robert . Constantinople Byzantine: Développement urbain et repertoire topographique , 1964. Mango, Cyril . Le développement urbain de Constantinople (IVe–VIIe siècle) , 1990. Mango, Cyril , and Gilbert Dagron , eds. Constantinople and Its Hinterland , 1995. Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang . Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls ,...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,506 words
Illustration(s):
2

... [This entry contains five subentries, on Constantinople’s fortifications ; on the Rus’ attacks of 860, 907, and 941 ; and on the sieges of 717–718 , 1422 , and 1453 . For discussion of the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, see Crusades , subentry on Narrative (1180–1245) .] Fortifications The construction of the new capital began in 324 on the site of the old Greek city of Byzantion, and The Walls of Constantinople. The walls, north of the Golden Gate, show the triple nature of Constantinople’s defenses: there was an outer wall, a moat,...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . [This entry treats the history and development of the city of Constantinople. For a discussion of its public monuments, city walls, and cisterns, see Constantinople, Monuments of . The capture of the city by the Turks is treated in Constantinople, Siege and Fall of . Individual monasteries and churches are the subject of independent entries.] Capital of the Byz. Empire, Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις, Turk. Istanbul) was founded by Constantine I in 324 on the site of the Greek city of Byzantion and dedicated on 11 May 330 . The...

Constantinople

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

...byzantin , Paris, 1971. W. Müller-Wiener , Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls , Tübingen, 1977. G. Dagron , Constantinople imaginaire. Études sur le recueil des Patria , Paris, 1984. C. Mango , Le Développement urbain de Constantinople (IV e -VII e siècle), Paris, 1985. C. Mango , Studies on Constantinople , Aldershot, 1993. C. Mango (ed.), G. Dagron (ed.), Constantinople and its Hinterland , Aldershot, 1995. P. Magdalino , Constantinople médiévale. Études sur l'évolution des structures urbaines , Paris, 1996. Jean-Michel...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,556 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Hagia Sophia. [ See also Archaeology, subentry Sites in Turkey , and Church Buildings .] Bibliography Bassett, Sarah E. The Urban Image of Late Antique Constantinople . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Mango, Cyril . Le développement urbain de Constantinople (IVe-VIIe siècles) . Paris: Diffusion de Boccard, 1985. Mathews, Thomas F. The Early Churches of Constantinople: Architecture and Liturgy . University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971. Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang . Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls . Tübingen,...

Constantinople

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The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
148 words

... , formerly Byzantium and now Istanbul, was founded by Constantine in 330 as the New Rome and capital of the empire. Constantine's original building programme probably included only three churches, but he provided secular buildings appropriate to the capital, such as fora, senates, a palace, a hippodrome, and triumphal arches and columns. The Nika riots of 532 burned down about half the city, but Justinian 's rebuilding included Hagia Sophia , SS Sergius and Bacchus, and St Irene. In the 7th and 8th centuries the Arabs and natural disasters...

Constantinople

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,251 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and welfare institutions. It was not, however, until after the disaster of 378 when Emperor Valens was killed in battle against the Goths that Roman emperors seriously invested in the future of Constantinople as an imperial and Christian capital. A. Mango : Studies on Constantinople (Aldershot and Brookfield, VT, 1993) R. A. Tomlinson : From Mycenae to Constantinople: The Evolution of the Ancient City (London, 1996) C. M. Odahl : Constantine and the Christian Empire (London,...

Constantinople Agreement

Constantinople Agreement (Mar.–Apr. 1915)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
100 words

...Constantinople Agreement ( Mar.–Apr. 1915 ) A number of secret assurances given by Britain and France. In their concern to prevent Russia from concluding a separate peace with Germany, they promised that Constantinople and the Dardanelles would be incorporated into the Russian Empire. This concession had eluded Tsarist Russia despite its efforts for over a century. In 1918 the Bolsheviks published the agreement, deeply embarrassing the Allies . Knowledge of the agreement also strengthened Atatürk 's determination and moral right to regain...

Constantinople harbours

Constantinople harbours   Reference library

James Crow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... harbours Constantinople was blessed with an outstanding maritime setting ( Procopius , Aed. 1, 5, 2–13). Since classical times harbours were strung around the eastern end of the peninsula and important excavations at Yenikapı, on the site of the Theodosian Harbour, have revealed for the first time the city’s maritime wealth with the remains of 37 ships dating from the 5th to the 11th century together with numerous artefacts, pottery , and bones, an important resource for future study. The inlet of the Golden Horn provided an excellent natural...

Constantinople, Fall of

Constantinople, Fall of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
246 words

..., Fall of ( 29 May 1453 ). Constantinople, the Byzantium of antiquity ( 657 bc – ad 330 ), was the capital of the Roman Empire in the east from 330 to 1453 and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1922 . The event known to the West as the ‘fall of Constantinople’ is celebrated by Turks as the ‘conquest of Istanbul’. The borders of Christian Byzantium gradually contracted under the Ottoman onslaught, and with the fall of Trebizond in 1461 , the Byzantine Empire consisted only of Constantinople and its immediate hinterland....

Constantinople, See of

Constantinople, See of   Reference library

Andrew Louth

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...held in Constantinople in 381, canon 3 asserted that Constantinople’s bishop should enjoy ‘the privileges of honour’ after the Bishop of Rome , because ‘it is new Rome’. No mention was made at that council of any jurisdictional consequences of the canon; indeed, canon 2 seems to rule out any such thing. In the decades after the council, there is evidence that the Bishop of Constantinople began to assume a certain overall jurisdiction over Asia Minor. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451, canon 28 asserted the privileges accorded to Constantinople at the...

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