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Condorcet paradox

A paradox of intransitive preferences arising from the aggregation of individual transitive preferences under majority rule. Its simplest manifestation is in a group of three voters ...

Condorcet paradox

Condorcet paradox   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... paradox A voting paradox noted by the Marquis de Condorcet in an essay published in 1785 . For example, suppose there are three candidates, A, B, and C, and three voters whose preferences are as follows: Preference First Second Third Voter 1: A B C Voter 2: B C A Voter 3: C A B A is preferred to B by a majority of voters and B is preferred to C by a majority. However, it is also the case that C is preferred to A by a...

Condorcet paradox

Condorcet paradox   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
119 words

...Condorcet paradox The observation that the preference order resulting from pairwise majority voting can be intransitive. Assume there are three options x, y , and z , and three individuals A, B , and C . Assume the individuals rank the alternatives as follows (preferred option given first): A : x, y, z ; B : y, z, x ; and C : z, x, y . If a vote is taken over the pair x and y then x will win with a majority of two votes against one. Similarly, y will defeat z , and z will defeat x . The preference order obtained from the voting process is...

Condorcet’s paradox

Condorcet’s paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...’s paradox n. A paradox of intransitive preferences arising from the aggregation of individual transitive preferences under majority rule. Its simplest manifestation is in a group of three voters choosing among three alternatives x, y , and z , the first voter preferring the three alternatives in the order xyz , the second yzx , and the third zxy . In a majority vote, x is preferred to y by a majority of two to one (the first and third voters preferring the alternatives in that order), and similarly y is preferred to z by a majority,...

Condorcet paradox

Condorcet paradox  

A paradox of intransitive preferences arising from the aggregation of individual transitive preferences under majority rule. Its simplest manifestation is in a group of three voters choosing among ...
cyclic majority

cyclic majority  

An intransitive preference order arising from majority voting in a group of individuals with transitive individual preferences. See Condorcet's paradox.
transitive preferences

transitive preferences  

Preferences having the property that if one alternative is preferred to a second, and the second is preferred to a third, then the first is preferred to the third. It is often assumed to be an axiom ...
Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet  

(1743–94)French mathematician and social theorist. Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified by his mathematical ...
voting paradox

voting paradox  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Suppose that three people, Alice, Brian, and Cait, are choosing between three candidates, Primus, Secunda, and Tertius, for a job. Alice prefers Primus to Secunda to Tertius. Brian prefers Secunda ...
paradox of voting

paradox of voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The observation that the level of voter turnout is inconsistent with rational decision-making on whether or not to vote. The act of voting involves a benefit and a cost to the voter. A benefit is ...
social-choice theory

social-choice theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The theory of ways to conjure a social welfare function, or rational choice for a collective as a whole out of the preferences or ‘utilities’ of its individual members. The theory is bedevilled by ...
paradox

paradox  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
n. (in family therapy) a surprising interpretation or suggestion made in the course of therapy in order to demonstrate the relationship between a psychological symptom and a system of family ...
intransitive preferences

intransitive preferences  

Preferences violating the condition that if one alternative is preferred to a second, and the second is preferred to a third, then the first should be preferred to the third. The following is the ...
majority voting

majority voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A voting method which selects as the winner the option with the majority of votes. When a choice is made from just two options May's theorem states that majority voting is the only decision rule to ...
collective choice

collective choice  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process of aggregating individual preferences into social preferences in order to make a social (or collective) choice from a set of alternatives. The most frequently encountered collective ...
Arrow's impossibility theorem

Arrow's impossibility theorem  

The theorem provides a proof that no perfect process exists for aggregating individual rankings of alternatives into a collective (or social) ranking. An example of an aggregation process is majority ...
voting

voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.1 (in a registered company) The process of casting a vote on a motion proposed at a company meeting. Initially the vote is taken upon a show of hands, i.e. each company member present in person has ...
voting paradox

voting paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...paradox n . Another name for Condorcet’s paradox...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... of voting n . Another name for Condorcet's paradox...

cyclic majority

cyclic majority n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...majority n. An intransitive preference order arising from majority voting in a group of individuals with transitive individual preferences. See Condorcet’s paradox...

paradox

paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., the liar paradox , or Grelling's paradox . The term is also used more loosely for any argument that yields a surprising conclusion, or even for a fact or phenomenon that seems surprising, but the latter is avoided in careful usage. See also Allais paradox , Aubert–Fleischl paradox , barber's paradox , Condorcet's paradox , duration estimation paradox , Ellsberg paradox , Fechner's paradox , Gödel's theorem , Goodman's paradox , melodic paradox , metalanguage , mirror reversal problem , modified Ellsberg paradox , Monty Hall problem , ...

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