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Commercial Law

Subject: Law

The areas of the legal system governing commerce, including (but not limited to) agency, contracts, company law, business entities and partnerships, insolvency, insurance, intellectual ...

Commercial law

Commercial law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,902 words

...law is perhaps the Barwick Court 's response to tax evasion in the form of the ‘bottom of the harbour’ tax schemes, which had an influence on commercial law and corporate law ( see Corporations law ; Taxation law ). Two distinctive features characterise the institutional role of the Court in the field of commercial law. First, the Court has attuned commercial law to modern conditions and striven to promote certainty, predictability, consistency and stability in legal doctrine. Secondly, the Court has demonstrated an awareness of the impact of commercial...

Commercial Law

Commercial Law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,754 words

... Law . For an American lawyer, commercial law is comprised of two principal sources. First, and foremost, is the Uniform Commercial Code. The second principal source of commercial law is the common law of contracts , particularly as found in the Restatement (Second) of Contracts. Complicating this picture of commercial law is the necessary inclusion of many distinct bodies of law (e.g., consumer law ; antitrust ; and bankruptcy law) which are often found in commercial-law disputes. In addition to these fields, one may add restitution, equity ,...

Commercial Law

Commercial Law   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
148 words

...Commercial Law In their broad outline, the fundamental principles of Islamic law in the area of contract and business law do not differ much from their counterparts in Western legal systems. From the nineteenth century, the influence of Western legal systems is largely found in the process of codification, intended to express legal norms in an accessible form, rather than in the substantive content of those norms. The Egyptian civil code ( 1948 ), based on Islamic law, Egyptian court decisions from 1883 , and various modern Western codes served as a model for...

Commercial Law

Commercial Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
9,196 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Law . [This entry contains four subentries, on commercial law in ancient Greek law, in classical Islamic law, in modern Islamic law, and in United States law. For discussion of commercial law in China, see Chinese Law, Sources of, subentry on Guilds. For discussion of commercial law in English common law and medieval and post-medieval Roman law, see Company Law.] Ancient Greek Law The development of commercial law in any community is directly linked to the nature of its economy. According to what has until recently been the orthodox view, however, the...

Commercial Law

Commercial Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,100 words

...commercial transactions in other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan. The respective roles of sharīʿah law and secular legislation continue to be debated in the field of commercial law in much the same way the discussion is taking place in other areas of Islamic law. Bibliography Ballantyne, William M. , and Howard L. Stovall , eds. Arab Commercial Law: Principles and Perspectives. Chicago: American Bar Association Publishing, 2002. Coulson, Noel J. Commercial Law in the Gulf States: The Islamic Legal Tradition. London: Graham and Trotman,...

commercial law

commercial law   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
37 words

...commercial law The areas of the legal system governing commerce, including (but not limited to) agency, contracts, company law, business entities and partnerships, insolvency, insurance, intellectual property, negotiable instruments, banking, finance, and other mercantile and business...

Partnerships and Commercial Societies in Islamic Law

Partnerships and Commercial Societies in Islamic Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,213 words

...and Commercial Societies in Islamic Law In Islamic jurisprudence, partnership contracts are known as ʿuqūd al-sharīka . The term sharīka literally means “sharing” or “participating.” Legally, it signifies the agreement of two or more individuals who invest in a business and share its profit or loss. Muslim jurists have disagreed about the categorization of partnership contracts. The Hanafis and Malikis divide the contract into two broad categories: proprietary partnership ( sharīkat al-milk ) and contractual partnership ( sharīkat al-ʿaqd )....

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Commercial Banks

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Commercial Banks   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
89 words

... of the People’s Republic of China on Commercial Banks A law that was adopted in 1995 and revised in 2003 . The law governs the establishment of commercial banks, rules for loans and protection of depositors, supervision of banks, and legal responsibilities. The aim is to protect the rights of parties involved and to maintain financial order. By this law, banks are permitted to take in deposits, lend, handle domestic and foreign settlements, issue and sell bonds, provide bank cards and letters of credit , and engage in interbank...

commercial law

commercial law n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
6 words
Commercial Law

Commercial Law  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The areas of the legal system governing commerce, including (but not limited to) agency, contracts, company law, business entities and partnerships, insolvency, insurance, intellectual property, ...
Partnerships and Commercial Societies in Islamic Law

Partnerships and Commercial Societies in Islamic Law  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In Islamic jurisprudence, partnership contracts are known as ʿuqūd al-sharīka. The term sharīka literally means “sharing” or “participating.” Legally, it signifies the agreement of two or more ...
Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the commercial law by Lord Chief Justice *Mansfield between 1756 and 1788 was the clearest contemporary example of the continuing willingness of common law judges to create substantive law independently of the legislature, despite their modest claims to a merely declarative function. Moreover, in the absence of legislation for devolved local government, the central courts and their judges maintained some administrative functions. These took the form of the regulation of the corporations and parish rating authorities by *prerogative writ in...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...incessant toil, indigence, and high pre-adolescent mortality rates—with the arithmetic series he posited for the likely maximum rate of increase in subsistence later emerging as a law of diminishing returns that was to dominate post-Smithian political economy [ see *poverty, 12 ]. As interpreted by Malthus, by his friend David *Ricardo , and by their respective followers, the law of diminishing returns entailed a defensible but (in hindsight) inaccurate assumption that improvements in technology when applied to land-using activities were only capable of...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...maps , and trade and commercial directories , enable the identification of union workhouses. The Poor Law unions formed the basis of the civil registration districts that were created in 1837 . Parliamentary Papers: Poor Law 10 ( 1834 ) contains a lot of information on parishes on the eve of the transition, including comments on landownership , the labour force, and wages , and on local attitudes and prejudices. After 1834 parliamentary papers continue to provide regular, detailed information on the operation of the Poor Law. These include the...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...called for the reorganization of bookselling and the circulation of MSS, requiring the introduction of edicts to regulate the book as a commercial and intellectual product. These legislative measures attempted to bring authorized printed materials on to the market during escalating conflicts in 16 th -century Europe. Widespread *censorship became one of the gravest intellectual and civil problems of the period. A law of 1502 regulated the intervention of the Crown in the printing industry and tried to resolve conflicts over the importation of ‘false and...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the Criminal Law’, in D. Hay , P. Linebaugh , & E. P. Thompson , eds., Albion's Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England , London, 1975; Hay, D. , & Snyder, F. , eds., Policing and Prosecution in Britain 1750–1850 , Oxford, 1989; Palmer, S. H. , Police and Protest in England and Ireland 1780–1850 , Cambridge, 1988; Philips, D. , ‘A New Engine of Power and Authority’: The Institutionalization of Law-Enforcement in England 1780–1830’, in V. A. C. Gatrell , B. Lenman , & G. Parker , eds., Crime and the Law: The Social History...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...apply scientific, general reasoning about human nature and economic growth to questions of poverty and philanthropy, although they reached very different conclusions. Were the poor laws subject to commercial or constitutional logic, for example? Was necessity or reward the best incentive to labour; how beneficial were high wages? Smith offered an influential prospect of commercial expansion and improving living conditions, whereas Malthus shed the earlier optimism of the political economists and argued in the late 1790s that the poor were condemned to misery,...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...initially relied on the same commercial networks in place during the MS period, one that centred on the *stationer’s shop, traditionally the supplier of writing materials and books. The famous Florentine bookseller and stationer *Vespasiano da Bisticci —purveyor of grand MSS to the likes of the Medici of Florence ( see laurentian library , florence ), *Federico da Montefeltro of Urbino, and Matthias *Corvinus , king of Hungary—refused to accept the new invention of printing with movable type and ended his commercial activities in 1478 . His main...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that Britain's military, political, and commercial ascendancy was naturally going to be accompanied by comparable architectural triumphs. And yet by the 1830s the tide of opinion had reversed. Observers perceived modern London as monotonous and possessed of too few magnificent public buildings. Parliamentary inquiries into Nash's Buckingham Palace deflated public confidence, as did the 1825 collapse of David Laing 's ( 1774–1856 ) London Custom House ( 1813–17 ). It was felt that architecture was becoming a commercial trade, populated by unscrupulous...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...more strident, the regulations became ever more severe until in 1875 new laws were drawn up on the French model, which held newspaper editors criminally responsible for the contents of their newspapers and made it impossible to publish books deemed to be damaging to public peace or morals. In the same year, the notorious Libel Law made it an offence to publish matters that reflected badly on members of the government, even if they happened to be true. The technology of commercial print continued to be dominated by woodblock printing up to the 1880s ....

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