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Columbian Exchange.

As of 1492, the Americas and Eurasia-Africa, except for occasional connections via the Bering Strait, had been separated for millions of years. During this time, organisms diverged in ...

Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange   Reference library

Alfred W. Crosby and David S. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...will kill a billion people over the next century. The full significance of the Columbian Exchange, so dramatic over the past five hundred years, continues to unfold. [ See also Atlantic World ; Disease ; Exploration, Conquest, and Settlement in North America ; and Native American History and Culture, subentries on Migration and Pre-Columbian Era ; Distribution of Major Groups circa 1500 , and 1500 to 1800 . ] bibliography Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972....

Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange.   Reference library

Alfred W. Crosby

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,050 words

...acquired from the Amerindians of the West Indies during the first Columbian expeditions. Skeletal evidence indicates that syphilis, or some infection like it, was indeed present in the pre-Columbian Americas. Evidence for it before 1492 in the Old World is not so clear, but the question remains unresolved. Some scholars hold that the appearance of syphilis in war-torn Italy soon after the first Columbian voyages was entirely a coincidence. The effects of the Columbian Exchange on the size and distribution of human populations is clear and spectacular....

Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange   Reference library

Alfred W. Crosby and Michael R. Hall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...from the Native Americans of the Caribbean during the early sixteenth century. Skeletal evidence indicates that syphilis, or some infection like it, was indeed present in the pre-Columbian Americas. Evidence for it before 1492 in the Old World is not so clear, but the question remains unresolved ( Aufderheide, 1998 , pp. 166–171). The effects of the Columbian Exchange on the size and distribution of human populations are clear and spectacular. The impact of Old World diseases on Native Americans radically reduced their number, conceivably by as much...

Columbian exchange

Columbian exchange   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... exchange the name given to the massive exchange of plants, animals, people, knowledge, etc. (not forgetting diseases) which took place between the Old World and the New World in the period following Columbus’ voyages. The first of these was in 1492 , in vessels financed by the King and Queen of Spain, the intention being to discover new trade routes to the East. Wool, clothing, iron, and lumber had long been exchanged overland with the East for luxury goods, dates, figs, fruits, and, above all, spices. The trade was hazardous, slow and, due to the...

Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange   Reference library

Alfred W. CROSBY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,156 words

...Alfred W. CROSBY University of Texas, Austin See also Biological Exchanges Further Reading Cook, N. D. (1998). Born to die: Disease and New World conquest, 1492–1650 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Crosby, A. W. (1986). Ecological imperialism: The biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Crosby, A. W. (1994). Germs, seeds, and animals . Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. Crosby, A. W. (2003). The Columbian exchange: Biological and cultural consequences of 1492 . Westport, CT: Praeger...

Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange.  

As of 1492, the Americas and Eurasia-Africa, except for occasional connections via the Bering Strait, had been separated for millions of years. During this time, organisms diverged in their evolution ...
World's Columbian Exposition

World's Columbian Exposition   Reference library

Joseph Horowitz

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,234 words
Illustration(s):
1

...my notice … The fundamental effect was a combination of double and triple time, the former kept by the singers, the latter by the drummers, but it is impossible to convey the … wealth of detail achieved by the drummers by means of exchange of the rhythms, syncopation of both simultaneously, and dynamic devices. World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Far more typically, the “primitive” music of the Midway excited amusement and derision. The Chicago Fair is also credited with propagating what came to...

Brazilian American Food

Brazilian American Food   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...States occurs in three distinct periods: as a crucial nexus of the quadrangular “Columbian Exchange” described by Alfred W. Crosby in his 1972 book with that title; as a much smaller component of a secondary migration of people and foodstuffs within the hemisphere following the clipper ship routes around South America and the gold rushes of 1840–1860 ; and as an immigrant cuisine with several kinds of crossover appeal since the mid-1980s. Brazil in the Columbian Exchange. Brazil is the source of several foods seen as native to the United Fogo de Chao....

Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher   Reference library

Kirkpatrick Sale

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
532 words

...in San Salvador, his reputation was tinged by the recognition that his true legacy included the exploitation and depletion of nature and the enslavement and near extinction of the peoples he encountered. See also Columbian Exchange ; Exploration, Conquest, and Settlement, Era of European ; Indian History and Culture: Migration and Pre-Columbian Era ; Indian History and Culture: Distribution of Major Groups, Circa 1500 ; Indian History and Culture: From 1500 to 1800 ; Spanish Settlements in North America . Samuel Eliot Morison , Admiral of the Ocean Sea:...

Canary Islands

Canary Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...islanders under Spanish rule at the end of the 15th century. So the cuisine which had existed in the islands and that which was brought in by the Spaniards already had some features in common. Both alike were influenced by the arrival of new foods from the Americas ( see columbian exchange ), for example the maize which has become an important crop in Gomera. The first major crop-plant introduction after the conquest was sugar cane , brought in by Portuguese experts from Madeira. This was the main crop for a century but succumbed to competition from the...

Soto, Hernando de

Soto, Hernando de   Reference library

Lawrence A. Clayton

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
343 words

...decimated the Native Americans already shocked by the ferocity and calculated terror of the Spanish. A century later, other European explorers would find little remnant of the impressive Woodland cultures described by the chroniclers of the De Soto expedition. See also Columbian Exchange ; Exploration, Conquest, and Settlement, Era of European ; Indian History and Culture: Distribution of Major Groups, Circa 1500 ; Indian History and Culture: From 1500 to 1800 ; Spanish Settlements in North America . Lawrence A. Clayton , Vernon James Knight Jr. , and...

Trade and Exchange

Trade and Exchange   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,697 words

...most important single book on Mesoamerican trade; includes many important data-oriented papers on trade routes and exchange systems. McKillop, Heather , and Paul Healy , eds. Coastal Maya Trade , vol. 8, Occasional Papers in Anthropology. Peterborough, Ont., 1989. Collection of papers showing the nature of coastal trade in obsidian and other goods, particularly in Postclassic times. Peregrine, Peter N. , and Gary M. Feinman , eds. Pre-Columbian World Systems . Madison, Wis., 1996. Application of world systems theory to ancient civilizations, including...

Warfare—Pre-Columbian South America

Warfare—Pre-Columbian South America   Reference library

Alf HORNBORG

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,563 words

...warfare to similar kinds of historical processes, for instance the struggle to control important resources or trade routes, and the shifting balance of power between centers and peripheries in regional or global systems of exchange. Alf HORNBORG Lund University, Sweden See also Andean States ; Amazonia, Ancient ; Art—Pre-Columbian Central and South America ; Inca Empire Further Reading Benson, E. P. , & Cook, A. G. (Eds.). (2001). Ritual sacrifice in ancient Peru . Austin: University of Texas Press. Bram, J. (1941). An analysis of Inca militarism...

Migration and Pre-Columbian Era

Migration and Pre-Columbian Era  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

... North America at the end of the pre-Columbian era was a cultural mosaic of hundreds of Native American nations speaking distinct languages and following lifeways ranging from small hunting bands to large settled chiefdoms based on intensive farming. All aspects of Native American culture displayed considerable regional and temporal variation. Reliable estimates of the aggregate size of North American Indian populations north of Mexico in 1492 ce put it at approximately 3.4 million. [ See also Columbian Exchange ; Exploration, Conquest, and Settlement...

Duality

Duality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,105 words

... Tezcatlipoca .] European priests sought parallels in indigenous ideology to the Christian God, angels, saints, and demons, and they established an exaggerated dichotomy between native gods. Pre-Columbian people distinguished between supernaturals and human beings, and this relationship represented a dynamic and unequal balance maintained by the reciprocal exchange of gifts. The deities provided good weather, abundant crops, and a vital and growing family, and they traded these for crops, incense, tobacco, and the hearts and blood that carried human life...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Thomas C. Patterson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
940 words

...refers to a stage in the unfolding of some teleological process. Archaeologists have avoided the more flagrant excesses of globalization theory by heeding the development of exchange-driven interaction, dependency, and world-systems theories as well as production-centered articulation of modes of production theories from the mid-1970s onward. Archaeologists investigating post-Columbian contexts (after ca. AD 1500) increasingly view their object of inquiry as the archaeology of capitalism in its myriad manifestations—class, gender, and race relations at home...

Gardie, Anna

Gardie, Anna (20 July 1798)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
485 words

...she later offered free services to the New York theater in exchange for a benefit performance. The remedy brought no relief. She resolved to separate from Louis Stephen Gardie, her aristocratic lover—he to return home to France, she to Haiti. Distraught at their impending separation, he slew her, then killed himself. The tragedy took place at New York's Fraunces Tavern on the night of 20 July 1798 . She was buried in Saint Mary's churchyard; he, in Potter's Field, now Washington Square. Columbian Centinel (Boston) (7 November 1795, 28 July 1798). Costonis,...

Spiro Mounds

Spiro Mounds   Reference library

Timothy K. Perttula

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
496 words

...Mounds State Archeological Park, administered by the Oklahoma Department of Tourism and Recreation. [ See also Mississippian Culture ; Mounds of Eastern North America ; North America: The Eastern Woodlands and the South . ] Phillips, Philip , and James A. Brown . Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma , Parts 1 and 2, 1978–1984. Rogers, J. Daniel , Don G. Wyckoff , and Dennis A. Peterson , eds. Contributions to Spiro Archeology: Mound Excavations and Regional Perspectives , 1989. Schambach, Frank F. “Some New...

Distribution of Major Groups circa 1500

Distribution of Major Groups circa 1500  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...language, social organization, and means of subsistence. It was a diversity that matched the cultural diversity of the newcomers from across the Atlantic. Subsequent interactions produced the complex cultural mosaic that persists in the twenty-first century. [ See also Columbian Exchange ; Disease ; Exploration, Conquest, and Settlement in North America ; and Native American Land Use . ] bibliography Coe, Michael, Dean R. Snow, and Elizabeth Benson. Atlas of Ancient America . New York: Facts on File, 1986. Snow, Dean R. Archaeology of Native...

Trading Patterns, Ancient American

Trading Patterns, Ancient American   Reference library

Michael E. SMITH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,782 words

...in Mesoamerica. Late Mesoamerican peoples adopted commercial exchange institutions that raised the volume of trade and extended the diversity of goods exchanged. In the Andes, a drive for self-sufficiency led to distinctive state-run trade systems. Overall, the high costs associated with overland human transport produced a volume of long-distance trade lower than that found in many other ancient societies. Michael E. SMITH Arizona State University See also Andean States ; Art—Pre-Columbian Central and South America ; Aztec Empire ; Inca Empire ;...

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