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Colonialism

[CP] A general term referring to the period c.ad 550–900 in North America, being one of the five main cultural‐historical stages defined for the archaeology of southwestern parts ...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
20 words

... [Th] The process whereby western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home...

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...( Rossiter (2007) J. Hist. Geog. 33, 4 ). Colonialism also entailed colonial philanthropy: ‘a new doctrine of responsibility toward the unprivileged, a doctrine which received its chief impulse from the Evangelical emphasis on the value of the human soul, and hence, of the individual’ (E. Howse 1953). Colonialism is also seen as a search for raw materials, new markets, and new fields of investment; see Giordano and Matzke , and Redclift (both in (2001) PHG 25, 4 ). Characteristics of colonialism include inequality between rulers and subjects;...

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A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...with little investment in schools and healthcare. However, different forms of colonialism have been identified, including direct rule and indirect rule . Although colonialism formally ended in many countries in the 1950s and 1960s, the colonial powers often continued to enjoy privileged economic relationships with the newly independent states, leading to accusations of neocolonialism...

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
183 words

... Modern colonialism (that is, the forcible conquest of territories and imposition of foreign rule on said territory) begins in the 15th century, though early forms of colonial behaviours have existed since antiquity. Most commonly known among these ancient colonial empires are the Roman, Persian, Egyptian, Phoenician, and Babylonian. Following the fall of Roman rule, the states of the early European MA did not tend to engage in colonization. In the 9th and 10th centuries, however, the *Vikings began to colonize in the British Isles, *Iceland , and...

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
794 words

... The control over one territory and its peoples by another, and the ideologies of superiority and racism often associated with such domination. Control may be incomplete or contested although fully established colonialism generally involves some measure of formal political and legal rule. Colonialism is often, but not necessarily, accompanied by the settlement of the subordinated territory, a process known as colonization. In turn, the settlement might be referred to as a colony. The term ‘colonialism’ is often used interchangeably with imperialism ...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
257 words

... The establishment by more developed countries of formal political authority over areas of Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America. It is distinct from spheres of influence, indirect forms of control, semi-colonialism , and neo-colonialism . Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the 19th century. It was usually (but not necessarily) accompanied by the settling of White populations in these...

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A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
270 words

...the native Catholics. In his influential book Internal Colonialism , Michael Hechter ( 1975 ) has examined the internal colonialism of the British Isles, claiming that peripheral regions were internal colonies of England. But ‘colonial’ must be in distancing quotation marks because, where such colonization occurred a long time ago, the descendants of the settlers feel themselves as much part of the territory as those whose ancestors they displaced (in South Africa, for instance). Colonialism is more often thought of as an attribute of the late...

colonialism

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Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... A system of control, exploitation, and occupation of one territory or country by another. While often used interchangeably with imperialism , colonialism differs in emphasis: since the ancient Roman colonia , or “estate,” colonial rule has usually been associated with settlement of a dominated territory, whereas imperialism simply connotes rule per se . The colonial period or “Age of Empire” refers to the European conquest and domination of much of the rest of the world between the early sixteenth and the mid-twentieth century. Colonial practices...

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Allan H. Simmons

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,948 words

...up the White Man’s Burden’ in Rudyard Kipling ’s phrase ( 1899 ). As an Anglophile, Conrad’s attitude to colonialism was janiform: his national and familial experiences at the hands of Russian imperialism meant that he questioned the basis of European colonialism, while his fervent Anglophilia meant that he shared some of the imperial enthusiasms sustaining the British Empire. Thus, in ‘Heart of Darkness’, he could write of colonialism, the same colonialism upon which the glory of the British Empire rested, that ‘The conquest of the earth, which mostly means...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
78 words

... Control by one country over a dependent area or people. Although associated with modern political history, the practice is ancient. In European colonial history, economic, political and strategic factors were involved in the colonial enterprise, which created the world empires of countries such as Britain and France, subjugating mainly African and Asian states and often creating artificial boundaries. After World War 2, colonialist exploitation was widely recognized, and powers conceded independence to their colonies. See also ...

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Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
536 words

... . There is a marked ambivalence in George Eliot 's views on British colonial expansion and the imperialist discourses that were increasingly necessary to underwrite British colonialism as the 19th century wore on. On the one hand, in her letters and essays George Eliot was occasionally highly critical of British claims to superiority over other peoples. For example, in her well-known letter of 29 October 1876 to Harriet Beecher *Stowe , she said that the British ‘spirit of arrogance and contemptuous dictatorialness’ towards ‘all oriental peoples …...

Colonialism

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Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,340 words

...rather than on earlier Iberian colonialism in the Americas. The discussion here also focuses specifically on the post–World War II notion of universal human rights that emerged within the framework of the United Nations ( UN ) system and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR ). Colonialism and Rights The link between colonialism and human rights manifests itself on several levels. The first relates to the origins and rationale of European colonialism. Underlying nineteenth- and twentieth-century European colonialism in Africa and Asia were the...

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
320 words

... The rule of one country by another, based on annexation or military victory by the invading country. Such countries acquired by extensive imperial powers have become colonies of that power. In the dynamic within colonialism, sport has often featured prominently in colonizer–colonized relations, as in the introduction of, for instance, cricket by the English and the British in the colonies, whether in Philadelphia and other east coast parts of its North American colony, the Indian subcontinent, Australia, South Africa, or the Caribbean. Spanish...

Colonialism

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Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
902 words

... Colonialism was the effort by nineteenth-century European powers to control, exploit, and inhabit other parts of the world, particularly Africa. Following Britain's abolition of the slave trade in 1807 and the end of slavery in the British colonies starting in 1834 , missionaries and explorers made extensive efforts to learn more about Africa, partly to compensate for their earlier enslavement of African peoples. In the process, interest also grew in Africa's vast potential to produce exploitable natural resources and the perceived need to bring...

colonialism

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Pal Ahluwalia

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
902 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were underpinned by the colonizers’ assertion of unquestioned superiority, as the civilizing mission upon which colonialism was legitimated had become imbued deeply within Western culture. See also race and sugarcane . Bibliography Ahluwalia, D. P. S. , Bill Ashcroft , and Roger Knight , eds. White and Deadly: Sugar and Colonialism . Commack, N.Y.: Nova Science, 1999. Ahluwalia, D. Pal , and Paul Nursey-Bray , eds. Post-colonialism Culture and Identity in Africa . Commack, N.Y.: Nova Science, 1997. Blackburn, Robin . The Making of New World Slavery:...

Colonialism

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George Heffernan

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,362 words

...rather indirectly by looking at imperialism. Nor do those who investigate colonialism normally do so with Aug.'s legacy in mind. Hence the challenge is twofold: to define ‘colonialism’ in Aug., and to find the faint traces of ‘Augustinian colonialism’ in other thinkers. The best place to start is with Aug.'s of the Roman Empire. II. Augustine the Roman: his Imperial Perspective ...

Colonialism

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Bruce P. Lenman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... One might expect that the enlightened use of reason to free mankind from outdated religious or political authority would stimulate critiques of colonialism in British North America, but around 1750 most articulate Englishmen, whether in Europe or America, saw the British dominions as an entity “great, free, and happy.” They had inherited the selfcongratulatory rhetoric that the Scot David Hume saw as English “vulgar whiggery,” a triumphalist, populist, post-1688 creed. They had not inherited the word “colonialism” because it does not seem to have...

Colonialism

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,189 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ This entry includes two subentries, an overview and discussion of colonialism in Africa. For further discussion of colonialism , see Civilizing Mission ; Decolonization ; and Empire and Imperialism . ] Overview “Colonialism” refers to a particular historical moment and social formation within western Europe's larger political and economic domination of the world that began in the sixteenth century and crumbled with the rise of the United States to global power following World War II. Colonialism took on a multitude of forms in different...

Colonialism

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The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,076 words

... . During the last two decades of the twentieth century, many literary scholars in the United States have turned their attention to the ways in which inequitable distributions of power affect literary production and reception. Renewed interest in colonization, imperialist expansion, and neo-colonization have resulted also in attention to the appropriations, parodies, and subversions of postcolonialism, with its perplexed connections to nationalism, multiculturalism, and globalism. Making use of feminist, deconstructive, psychoanalytic, and Marxist...

Colonialism

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Ian J. McNiven

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,285 words

... The history of archaeology is intimately linked to colonialism and the European colonial settlement of the Americas, Africa, and Australia. Colonization of new lands, especially those already settled by Indigenous peoples, was underwritten by philosophies that helped justify forced land acquisition and in many cases extermination of native peoples. In the European context, the rise of anthropological notions of the “ladder of mankind,” staged progression of human societies, and racial ranking during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries developed...

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