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Claude Bernard

(1813–1878) French physiologist who formulated the principle of homeostasis, the physiological self-corrective mechanism that “automatically” seeks to restore the normal internal ...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude (1813–78)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
109 words

..., Claude ( 1813–78 ). French physiologist and professor at the Collège de France , a leading figure in the development of experimental science as a system of hypothesis, proof, and refutation. In his Introduction à la médecine expérimentale ( 1865 ), he defined systematic medical experiment, distinguishing it from the randomness of empirical observation, and asserted the principle of scientific determinism, which, he held, was not to be confused with philosophical fatalism. Naturalist novelists, and particularly Zola in Le Roman expérimental ,...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude (1813–1878)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
928 words

...Method (1952). Claude Bernard , An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine , trans. H. C. Greene (1957). Frederic L. Holmes , Claude Bernard and Animal Chemistry (1974). Mirko D. Grmek , Le legs de Claude Bernard (1997). Frederic Lawrence...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
396 words

..., Claude (1813–1878) French physiologist Bernard , the son of a poor wine grower from St. Julien, began writing plays to earn money but turned to medicine on the advice of a literary critic. His first experiences of medicine were discouraging but, following his appointment as assistant to François Magendie at the Collège de France, he began a period of extremely productive research. He drew attention to the importance of the pancreas in producing secretions for breaking down fat molecules into fatty acid and glycerine and showed that the main processes...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude (1813–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
330 words

..., Claude ( 1813–78 ). French physiologist . The son of a vine-grower in the Rhone, after an apprenticeship to a pharmacist and an attempted career as a playwright, Bernard entered the medical school in Paris, qualifying in 1839 . He became research assistant to François Magendie at the Collége de France, where he obtained his MD in 1843 with a thesis on the role of gastric juice in the digestion process. He directed his research towards experimental physiology and in 1847 he was appointed lecturer at the Collége de France. In 1852 , on the...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,145 words

..., Claude Claude Bernard ( 1813–78 ) was a key figure in French nineteenth-century science, and one of the world's great physiologists. With good reason he has been called the ‘father of experimental medicine’. Bernard was born in St Julien-en-Beaujolais, the son of a winegrower and schoolmaster. The greater part of his education was at the local Jesuit College at Villefranche; at the age of 19 he went to work for M. Millet , a pharmacist in the suburb of Lyons. At this time, Bernard's greatest enthusiasm was for the theatre — he wrote a Vaudeville, La...

Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (1813–78)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
162 words

...0Claude Claude Bernard 1813 – 78 French physiologist Observation is a passive science, experimentation an active science. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865, tr. H. C. Green) [ The science of life ] is a superb and dazzlingly lighted hall which may be reached only by passing through a long and ghastly kitchen. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865, tr. H. C. Green) long and ghastly kitchen long and ghastly kitchen Our ideas are only intellectual instruments which we use to break into phenomena; we...

Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (1813–78)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
138 words

...0Claude Claude Bernard 1813 – 78 French physiologist Observation is a passive science, experimentation an active science. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865, translated by Henry Copley Green, 1949) observation is a passive science Observation is a passive science experimentation an active science experimentation an active science [ The science of life ] is a superb and dazzlingly lighted hall which may be reached only by passing through a long and ghastly kitchen. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine ...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude (1813–78)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Bernard, Claude ( 1813–78 ) French physiologist who formulated the principle of homeostasis, the physiological self-corrective mechanism that “automatically” seeks to restore the normal internal bodily environment when it is disrupted. Bernard's concepts remain relevant in studies of the physiological basis of many environmental health problems. ...

Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (1813–78)   Reference library

Francis Crick

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
2,122 words

...Claude Bernard 1813 – 78 French physiologist The first entirely vital action, so termed because it is not effected outside the influence of life, consists in the creation of the glycogenic material in the living hepatic tissue. The second entirely chemical action, which can be effected outside the influence of life, consists in the transformation of the glycogenic material into sugar by means of a ferment. Sur le Méchanisme de la Fonction du Sucre dans le Foie (1857), 583. Translated in Joseph S. Fruton, Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude (1813–78)   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Claude ( 1813–78 ) French physiologist...

Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
45 words
Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
44 words
Bernard, Claude

Bernard, Claude   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
38 words
Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1813–1878)French physiologist who formulated the principle of homeostasis, the physiological self-corrective mechanism that “automatically” seeks to restore the normal internal bodily environment ...
22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...it differs from that of a bibliophile like *Grolier , earlier in the century, with his particular interest in bindings. The 16 th century can rightly be called the golden age of French binding, with names like Étienne Roffet (named Royal Binder in 1533 ), Jean Picard, Claude Picques, Gomar Estienne (no relation of the printing dynasty), and Nicolas and Clovis *Eve (the latter active during the 1630s ). Progress was also made in printing music, first by *Haultin , then by Pierre Attaingnant of Douai ( fl . 1525–51 ), who became the first royal...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...pittoresque ou Description des royaumes de Naples et de Sicile , published in Paris between 1781 and 1786 , with outstanding designs by several important artists, notably Fragonard and Hubert Robert. The entire undertaking was really the brainchild and the obsession of Jean-Claude Richard , abbé de Saint-Non. He visited Italy for the first time in 1759 and the country, and especially Rome, entranced him. He then devoted his life and most of his wealth to ensuring that this large-scale project was completed to his satisfaction. It is far more than a mere...

Alan Claude Robin Goldsmid Montefiore

Alan Claude Robin Goldsmid Montefiore  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1926–)Alan Montefiore was born in London on 29 December 1926 as part of a prominent British Jewish family. He was educated at Clifton College and, after military service in ...
misnomers — eponymous

misnomers — eponymous  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Eponymy is generally considered to mean affixing the name of the scientist to all or part of what he has found; however, in practice, as Stephen Stigler writes, ‘No scientific ...
endocrinology — history

endocrinology — history  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In 1855, Claude Bernard discovered that glucose was synthesized in the liver and secreted into the portal vein. He described this secretion as ‘internal’, to distinguish it from bile, the ...
Claude de la Colombière

Claude de la Colombière  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Jesuit priest (1641–82).Born near Lyons, he worked in Avignon, Paray-le-Monial, and lastly London, where he narrowly escaped execution. Born into a wealthy and devout family at Saint–Symphorien, he ...

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