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Civil Rights Movement

A grouping devoted to political and social reform in Northern Ireland, led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. NICRA was founded in Belfast early in 1967 by a group ...

Civil Rights Movement.

Civil Rights Movement.   Reference library

Raymond O. Arsenault

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,661 words

...Civil Rights Movement. The American civil rights movement encompasses more than three centuries of struggle against racial discrimination, and is best understood in this broad context. Revolutionary Era through the Civil War. The movement that culminated in the organized protests and civil rights legislation of the 1950s and 1960s drew upon the traditions and experiences of uncooperative and fugitive slaves, black and white abolitionists, and free blacks who resented second-class citizenship. During the second half of the eighteenth century, the egalitarian...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,320 words

...relief, the Civil Rights Movement has affected U.S. politics in fundamental ways. The Civil Rights Movement demonstrated to the oppressed black community how such protest could be successful, and it made social protest respectable. The Civil Rights Movement also proved that at times significant reform can occur through nonviolent action. The significance of the Civil Rights Movement extends beyond the rights and freedoms of blacks. The movement also broadened the scope of politics and inspired diverse movements for citizenship rights and social justice...

civil rights movement

civil rights movement ((USA))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
566 words

...Christian Leadership Conference and the Student Non‐Violent Co‐ordinating Committee. His charisma empowered the civil rights movement through religion and a sense of calling, while his insistence on peaceful action divided white opposition. Eventually, the civil rights movement began to win the political argument. In September 1957 federal troops were sent to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce school desegregation. Congress passed a Civil Rights Act establishing a federal agency of six commissions to investigate complaints. A further Act was passed in ...

civil rights movement

civil rights movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
354 words

... rights movement , a grouping devoted to political and social reform in Northern Ireland , led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. NICRA was founded in Belfast early in 1967 by a group which included liberals, trade unionists, communists, and republicans, but no active politicians. It drew inspiration from the success of Martin Luther King's movement in the USA and more practical guidance from the British‐based National Council for Civil Liberties. Its aims were to achieve universal suffrage and the abolition of multiple business voting in...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,214 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Rights Movement . “Civil rights movement” is an umbrella term that refers to the various efforts of African American activists to gain full citizenship rights and to end racial discrimination in American society. Sustained civil rights organizing began in the early twentieth century, matured in the 1940s and 1950s, and culminated in the mass nonviolent protests of the 1960s. After securing civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, the movement became more radical, increasingly rejecting nonviolent protest and advocating more fundamental change. Though the...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...blacks should sustain the struggle for civil rights, especially in terms of voting rights, access to education, and social equality. Du Bois, the leader of this group, believed that black elites, the so-called “talented tenth,” should play the leading role in the struggle for civil rights. Du Bois’s brand of elite-led, moderate, multiracial, and integrationist civil rights protests would become the dominant form of civil rights advocacy. In 1905 , Du Bois and other black civil rights activists formed the Niagara Movement. The organization was committed to the...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Aldon Morris

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,352 words

...the civil rights movement has affected US politics in fundamental ways. It demonstrated to the oppressed black community how such protest could be successful, and it made social protest respectable. The movement also proved that, at times, significant reform can occur through nonviolent action. The significance of the civil rights movement extends beyond the rights and freedoms of blacks. The movement also broadened the scope of politics and inspired diverse movements for citizenship rights and social justice in the United States and abroad. Before the civil...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Aldon Morris

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,350 words

...Civil Rights Movement has affected US politics in fundamental ways. It demonstrated to the oppressed black community how such protest could be successful, and it made social protest respectable. The movement also proved that, at times, significant reform can occur through nonviolent action. The significance of the civil rights movement extends beyond the rights and freedoms of blacks. The movement also broadened the scope of politics and inspired diverse movements for citizenship rights and social justice in the United States and abroad. Before the Civil...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Tammy L. Kernodle

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,071 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Rights Movement . Although African American music has contained an undercurrent of resistance and transcendence from its beginnings, most associate these ideals with the manner in which black song traditions were used during the Civil Rights Movement, c 1954–76 . Freedom songs, or civil rights songs, were drawn from different genres and were used in myriad ways as movement activities diversified and spread. 1. Albany movement: music as a tool of resistance . 2. Folk music and the movement . 3. Black popular music, civil rights and militancy . 1. Albany...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Wesley Hogan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Rights Movement Encompassing three centuries of daily struggle for freedom in the face of white supremacy, the U.S. civil rights movement is best understood in this broad context of the Revolutionary era through the twentieth century. The movement culminating in the organized protests and civil rights legislation of the 1950 s and 1960 s drew upon the experiences of rebel fugitive slaves, Maroon communities, black and white abolitionists, and free blacks who battled second-class citizenship. During the eighteenth century, the egalitarian rhetoric of the...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Gene R. Nichol

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,312 words

...claim that the civil rights movement—over the longer course—contributed even more substantially to the development of the Supreme Court. Some of the constitutional initiatives of the civil rights era have faded. The great stretches of the state action doctrine between 1960 and 1972 , for example, were dramatically pared back. Ambitious civil and voting rights statutes passed in 1964 , 1965 , and 1968 diminished the need for constitutional intervention in nonpublic discrimination ( see Civil Rights Act of 1964 ; Voting Rights Act of 1965 )....

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,003 words
Illustration(s):
2

...University Press, 1981. Clark, Septima . Ready from Within: Septima Clark and the Civil Rights Movement . Edited with an introduction by Cynthia Stokes Brown. Navarro, Calif.: Wild Tree, 1986. Collier-Thomas, Bettye , and V. P. Franklin , eds. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights–Black Power Movement . New York: New York University Press, 2001. Crawford, Vicki L. , Jacqueline Anne Rouse , and Barbara Woods . Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941–1965 . Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Publishers,...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,750 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in politics and journalism. They joined, and were leaders of, civil rights organizations and other black interest groups. They were the plaintiffs in many civil rights court cases and the lawyers in several. In the1960s, during the height of the civil rights movement, they were the backbone of the movement. All over the South, black women were crucial as grassroots leaders, stimulating mass participation in the movement. Arrest of a protester. Such scenes were typical during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. This photograph by Dick De Marsico,...

Civil Rights movement, American

Civil Rights movement, American   Reference library

Deborah Willis

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
613 words

...the inevitability of change. In longer perspective, finally, civil rights photography encouraged later generations of photojournalists—photographers like James Nachtwey , for instance—to believe that the graphic depiction of injustice might, eventually, end it. DW Deborah Willis Fulton, M. (ed.), Eyes of Time: Photojournalism in America (1988). Kasher, S. , The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History (1996). Davidson, B. , and Lewis, J. , Bruce Davidson: Time of Change—Civil Rights Photographs 1961–1965 ...

Civil Rights Movement, the

Civil Rights Movement, the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
842 words

... Rights Movement, the . The movement spans two decades of African-American history beginning in the mid-1950s, with the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of its christening moments. Despite the fact that historians have generally focused on the role of male civil rights leaders, women, as writers and activists, shaped the boycott, as well as the civil rights movement as a whole. From the time of the civil rights movement's birth through the black power movement of the mid-1960s, African American women writers explored experiences of struggle in a literary...

Puerto Rican Civil Rights Movement

Puerto Rican Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Andrés Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,909 words

...and After 1964 Puerto Ricans participated within the overall civil rights movement, and they also created their own autonomous vehicles for the pursuit of basic rights. In 1956 El Congreso del Pueblo , an amalgam of hometown clubs, was formed under the leadership of Gilberto Gerena Valentín. A labor and community activist who was brought before the infamous House Committee on Un-American Activities, Gerena went on to become an essential link between Puerto Ricans and the civil rights movement. He was called upon by Rev. Martin Luther King to mobilize and...

Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Mexican American Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Lisa Y. Ramos

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American Civil Rights Movement The Mexican American civil rights movement emerged in the late nineteenth century as ethnic Mexicans—that is, all Mexicans regardless of citizenship—fought anti-Mexican discrimination. Mutualistas , or grassroots mutual aid societies, sprang up in various U.S. communities during this period, especially in the Southwest. They helped ethnic Mexicans preserve their heritage, provided financial assistance, and mobilized against anti-Mexican policies. One of the best known was the Alianza Hispano-Americana (Hispanic American...

Civil Rights Movement in the United States

Civil Rights Movement in the United States   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,619 words

... Rights Movement in the United States . [ This entry contains two subentries : An Overview and Methods of Nonviolent Action.] An Overview The modern African American civil rights movement is part of a multifaceted freedom struggle with deep historical roots. Since the start of the European slave trade to the Americas, African slaves and their descendants have engaged in varied forms of resistance against racial oppression and discrimination. During the late eighteenth century, European democratic movements stimulated this resistance. The American and...

United States of America, Britain, and the Civil Rights Movement

United States of America, Britain, and the Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,583 words

... 1965 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act, securing basic civil rights for all Americans regardless of race. In Britain climactic anti‐discrimination legislation did not arrive until the Race Relations Act of 1968 . This delay is characteristic of the UK rights movement, which lagged behind the United States in protest and legislation. If 19th‐century American abolitionism imitated the British anti‐slavery movement, borrowing its symbols, methods, and leaders, the history of the modern Civil Rights Movement is a direct reversal, with...

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... Rights Movement . The campaign – reaching a climax in the winter and spring of 1968 / 9 – to abolish sectarian discrimination in Northern Ireland in jobs, housing and local elections; the movement also sought the abolition of the Special Powers Act and the B-Specials . The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA), founded in Belfast in 1967 , subsumed initially a number of other reform groupings including the Dungannon-based Campaign for Social Justice and People's Democracy , a radical student group, mainly associated with Queen's...

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