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Church's thesis

Subject: Philosophy

The hypothesis, put forward by Alonzo Church in 1935, that any function on the natural numbers that can be computed by an algorithm can be defined by a formula of the lambda calculus. See ...

Church's thesis

Church's thesis   Reference library

Stewart Shapiro

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
213 words

...form. These technical notions were shown to be coextensive. It is reasonably clear that every recursive function is computable, since an algorithm can be ‘read off’ a recursive derivation or a Turing machine. Church's thesis is the assertion that a function is computable if and only if it is recursive, Turing-computable, etc. Thus, Church's thesis identifies the extension of a pre-formal notion with that of an explicitly defined rigorous notion. Prof. Stewart Shapiro See also logic, history of . Martin Davis (ed.), The Undecidable (New York, 1965)....

Church’s thesis

Church’s thesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...’s thesis The hypothesis, put forward by Alonzo Church in 1935 , that any function on the natural numbers that can be computed by an algorithm can be defined by a formula of the lambda calculus . See also Church–Turing thesis...

Church’s thesis

Church’s thesis   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...Church’s thesis ( Church-Turing thesis ) The principle that any definition of a computable function on the natural numbers —one that can be effectively implemented, for example by an algorithm —will lead to the same computable functions as in Church’s and Turing’s work. As such, the thesis is unprovable, though no counterexample has been found amongst subsequent alternative definitions of...

Church’s thesis

Church’s thesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
65 words

...’s thesis The thesis that every effectively computable function is general recursive. A thesis rather than a theorem, because the notion of effective computability remains intuitive rather than mathematically defined. The thesis is generally believed, since a number of notions, including Turing computability, coincide in identifying this class of functions, and nobody has yet found something that is effective, intuitively, but not...

Church–Turing thesis

Church–Turing thesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...–Turing thesis The proposition that the set of functions on the natural numbers that can be defined by algorithms is precisely the set of functions definable in one of a number of equivalent models of computation. These models include Post production systems , Church’s lambda calculus , Turing machines , Kleene’s mu-recursion schemes, Herbrand-Gödel equational definability, Shepherdson-Sturgis register machines, the while programming language, and flow charts. The proposition is a scientific hypothesis, subject to empirical and theoretical confirmation...

Church's thesis

Church's thesis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The hypothesis, put forward by Alonzo Church in 1935, that any function on the natural numbers that can be computed by an algorithm can be defined by a formula of the lambda calculus. See also ...
Church–Turing thesis

Church–Turing thesis  

The proposition that the set of functions on the natural numbers that can be defined by algorithms is precisely the set of functions definable in one of a number of equivalent models of computation. ...
1700 to the Present

1700 to the Present   Reference library

Ronald Clements

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
18

...Jesus' socially revolutionary mission made the Bible a powerful force for social reform. The shrine containing what is traditionally regarded as the tomb of Christ, in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem. A litho by David Roberts, 1849. By permission of the British Library. By the time of the First World War the thesis of Schweitzer stood as both a milestone of past researches and a starting-point for fresh enquiry. Increasingly this focused on the quest to find the sources which the authors of the surviving...

Russian, Ukrainian, and Other Eastern Slavic Family Names

Russian, Ukrainian, and Other Eastern Slavic Family Names   Reference library

Alexander Beider

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
2,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...russkikh lichnykh imen (Moscow, 2005). Although these books do not deal explicitly with family names, the materials collected in them can be used to explain numerous modern Russian family names. The pioneering studies on Ukrainian surnames were written by Yu. K. Red’ko. In his thesis (1966), he discusses in detail the typology of names, classified in terms of semantics and morphology, and the origins of various suffixes, and presents numerous examples. All names are also discussed in terms of geography. The following books by Red’ko were published: Suchasni...

The Early Church

The Early Church   Reference library

Henning Graf Reventlow

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,415 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
6

... The Early Church Henning Graf Reventlow The Use of the Old in the New Testament The study and use of the Bible in the church begins with the church itself. Jesus of Nazareth quoted the Bible and taught his disciples how to behave according to a radicalized Mosaic law ( Matt. 5: 21–48 ). His proclamation of the kingdom of God actualizes a basic issue in the Old Testament: God as king of Israel his people, residing on Mt Zion. To begin with the seems to have identified his mission with the task of the messenger who has to bring...

Religion and Liberty

Religion and Liberty   Reference library

Mehdi Bazargan

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,567 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...than Bazargan. A subtext of Bazargan's speech is a defense of liberalism against the left wing of the Freedom Movement, as well as against anti-democratic forces in the Islamic Republic.—Translator] 5. For further information on this thesis and its comparison with other social philosophies, see my book Be‘sat va ide’olozhi [ Prophetic Mission and Ideology ], part I. 6. The Renaissance of the 15th and 16th centuries commenced with a renewed interest in the Greek art in Italy...

Muslim Unity and Arab Unity

Muslim Unity and Arab Unity   Reference library

Sāti‘ Al-Husrī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Muslims does not mean that Muslim unity is either possible or necessary. Beyond this, he maintains that religious unity has been a historical chimera, even in the Islamic world itself after the first generations of the ummah (Islamic community). Finally, he rejects the thesis that advocacy of Arab unity is a British plot to divide the Muslim world. He does so empirically by noting cases in which the British frustrated national ambitions and thereby rescued the leaders of Islamic societies, as when they defended the Ottoman Empire from the Russians, or...

The Pastoral Epistles

The Pastoral Epistles   Reference library

Clare Drury and Clare Drury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,198 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...apostle and of his legitimate successor; they are the transmitters of the true teaching of the church. Church Organization and Behaviour ( 2:1–3:13 ) The discussion in chs. 2 and 3 changes from concern about the opposition to a description of the kind of behaviour that should characterize members of the church towards both one another and outsiders. The detailed arrangements for the leadership of this household and relationships within it suggest that the church is becoming more at home in the world. For Paul, who felt he was living at the end of the age,...

Colossians

Colossians   Reference library

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP and Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, OP

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The church must be characterized by the organic unity of a living ‘body’ ( v. 18 a ). The insight is but an extension and clarification of ‘you are all one person in Christ Jesus’ ( Gal 3:28 = Col 3:11 ). The distinction between ‘head’ and ‘body’ does not appear in 1 Cor 12:12–27 or Rom 12:4–5 because the supremacy of Christ was not questioned at Rome or Corinth. In this instance ‘head’ would appear to mean both ‘superior’ ( 2:10 ) and ‘source’ ( 2:19 ). The cosmic dimension of the original hymn has been reduced to ecclesiology. ( 1:21–3 ) The Thesis of the...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by sight to the churches of Judea’ ( Gal 1:22 ). Surely, it is argued, the Jerusalem church would have known its chief persecutor. 6. In the context of Galatians, however, Paul is talking about his contacts with Jerusalem as a Christian: apart from Cephas and James, he declares, the church in Jerusalem and Judea had not seen the transformed Paul with their own eyes. With respect to the possibility of a period of residence in Jerusalem, then, Paul's statement that he was a Pharisee weighs in more heavily than does his comment about the churches in Judea (...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the public sphere. Perhaps the most innovative dimension of Paine's book is its attempt to provide a political thesis in a popular style. If Rights of Man repeatedly returns to the idea of the usurpation of Anglo-Saxon liberty by Norman oligarchy, so too its style implicitly signals that the language of the common people could be a valid medium and instrument of political change. Paine's is perhaps the most important application of Tooke's thesis that there was no special language of mind enabling the discussion of issues of national importance, but it had...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Jewish Christians. Does 15:31 indicate that Paul would have to defend himself to the Church as well as to the Jewish authorities of Jerusalem? If so, on what issues? F. C. Baur ( 1873–5 : i. 109–51 ) asserted a century and a half ago that the leaders of the Jerusalem church (notably, Peter and James) actively opposed Paul for admitting uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. It is the heirs of Baur today who make the most of Paul's conflict with the Jerusalem church. By their reading, Paul's defence in Romans of the equality of Jew and Gentile is aimed...

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy   Reference library

Soroush Abdolkarim

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,536 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...further accuse the adherents of the compatibility of democracy and religion, of ignorance about the true nature of religion. (See Mr. Hamid Paydar's “The Paradox of Islam and Democracy,” Kiyan , no. 19.) Three dark and dangerous errors dim the horizon of judgment of the above thesis. First, Democracy is equated with extreme liberalism. Second, religious jurisprudence [ shari‘ah ] is severed from its foundations, quoted out of context, and then presented as evidence. Third, and most important, religious democratic government is equated with religious...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a more problematic one. James Littlejohn , Westrigg: The Sociology of a Cheviot Parish ( 1963 ), falls into the tradition of contemporary recording rather than historical study (even the name of the parish is fictitious). The standard sociological practice when developing a thesis is to test it by means of experimental techniques such as surveys and controlled interviews. A good example is Lynn Jamieson and Claire Toynbee , Country Bairns: Growing Up, 1900–1930 ( 1992 ). But, of course, one cannot interview the more distant past, and the surviving...

Extra-canonical early Christian literature

Extra-canonical early Christian literature   Reference library

J. K. Elliott and J. K. Elliott

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,133 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...We shall then turn briefly to the Epistles by Ignatius. The Pseudo-Clementine Letters: 1 Clement F. 1. This anonymous letter to the church in Corinth is claimed in later tradition to have been written by Clement, the third or fourth bishop of Rome. The letter, likely to have been written at the end of the first century, is concerned with church order and ministry. Roman authority and jurisdiction over the church in Corinth seem to have been taken for granted by its composer. 2. The letter is in the Bryennios MS. As well as being in the Codex...

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