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china

Italian;

bitter apéritif wines containing quinine.

China Daily

China Daily   Reference library

Judy POLUMBAUM

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...early China Daily was Feng Xiliang, a longtime editor of the weekly Beijing Review , who had studied journalism at St. John’s University, a missionary school in Shanghai, and earned a master’s degree in journalism from the University of Missouri. As head of the paper’s founding commission and then managing editor ( 1981–1984 ) and editor-in-chief ( 1984–1987 ), Feng often stated that China Daily ’s objective was to help foreigners understand China and China understand the world. Indeed, a large (although usually unacknowledged) proportion of China Daily ’s...

Republican China

Republican China   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
133 words

...Republican China ( 1911–49 ) A sovereign state. In power between the end of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) and the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 , it ruled over the territory of modern China and parts of Mongolia and Taiwan . Its first President was Sun Yat-sen , followed by Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) , and their Kuomintang government sought to bring stability to China by modernizing and industrializing the country in order to overcome prevalent warlordism and corruption . These efforts brought them into conflict with...

China Model

China Model   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
80 words

...China Model ( ‘Beijing Consensus’ ) A concept asserting that China has a specific economic development strategy. Central to China’s rapid economic growth since the late 1970s, it is built upon innovation, experimentation, export-led growth, sustainability, self-determination, and the even distribution of wealth—although these major guiding principles (and even the term itself) remain contested. Seen as integral to an authoritarian growth model, it provides a non-political alternative to the Washington Consensus , and is attractive to non-democratic and...

China Renaissance

China Renaissance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
87 words

...China Renaissance ( zhonghua wenhua fuxing ) A political slogan typifying the period of Xi Jinping ’s leadership, which seeks to restore China to its former status of being a great power in world affairs—a position the country held prior to the century of humiliation . Such a restoration is mainly based on using the country’s increasing economic and military power to boost its international standing, leadership, and stability, as well as reasserting its cultural heritage. See also Chinese Dream ( zhongguo meng ) ; nationalism...

china

china   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
19 words

... like a bull in a china shop : see bull . not for all the tea in China : see tea...

China

China   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... China's flag was adopted in 1949, when the country became the Communist People's Republic. Red is the traditional colour of both China and communism. The large star represents the Communist Party programme. The smaller stars symbolize the four main social...

china

china   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
37 words

... A broad term that refers, inaccurately, to any ceramic ware. It is derived from the phrase ‘porcelain from China’, used since the 15th century, when Chinese porcelain began arriving in large quantities in the...

China

China   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...China . A country of East Asia. Languages: Putonghua (official: see below), various Chinese dialects (see below), and various minority languages, including Uighur, Tibetan, Manchu, Mongol, and Korean. No Western language has established itself in mainland China as such, but English is used in hong kong and Portuguese in Macao, and English is the principal foreign language taught in China. ...

China

China   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...China ( Zhōngguó ) The People’s Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó) since 1949 . Previously the Republic of China ( 1912 ) and the Chinese Empire ( 221 bc ); this was ruled by various dynasties: the Qing (Manchu) ( 1644–1911 ), the Ming ( 1368–1644 ), the Yuan (Mongol) ( 1260–1368 ), and so on. Zhōngguó means ‘Middle Kingdom’ from zhōng ‘middle’ and wángguó ‘kingdom’ and refers to historical China, in particular the eighteen inner provinces—the centre of the known world; it was first used as the formal term for China at the Treaty of...

China

China   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
21 words
Illustration(s):
10

...China Physical map Political map Beijing Central Beijing Central Beijing Guangzhou Hong Kong Central Hong Kong Central Hong Kong Shanghai Tianjin...

China

China   Reference library

Qixin He and Chong Zhang

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Chinese local dramatic forms. Shakespeare found his way into Chinese classrooms in the 1930s, and an excerpt of the court trial scene from The Merchant of Venice is included in China’s senior high school Chinese textbooks for compulsory reading. Now seminars on Shakespeare are usually offered to English majors at the graduate level in Chinese universities and colleges, while translated versions of Shakespeare’s plays are often included in the reading list for students majoring in Chinese literature or foreign literature. Shakespeare criticism in China did...

China

China   Reference library

Susan Whitfield

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Chinese nuns. By the 4th century there were communities of Sogdian merchants from Central Asia in major towns along the land routes and, by the 5th century a sizeable community of Arab and Persian merchants in Yangzhou on the Yangzi River, many of whom probably arrived by sea. The Chinese and Sasanian courts had direct contact, the Chinese recording over ten embassies arriving in China in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Sui sent an embassy to the Sasanians and contact was continued under the Tang, with the Sasanians requesting Chinese aid against...

China

China   Reference library

Wei-Chin Lee

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,604 words

...to prepare for China ’s security challenges. In spite of that, hard balancing based on military strength alone may not work well in US policy toward China . While China ’s neighboring countries feel hemmed in by China ’s powerful presence in the Pacific, they are also lured by China ’s market and trade benefits. This puts them in a bind. Their “balancing” strategy to side with the United States to counter China ’s influence definitely collides with their “bandwagoning” behaviors to harvest material interests from China ’s economic boom. One...

China

China   Reference library

Jacqueline Armijo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,383 words

...relations among the many different Muslim ethnic groups in China vary widely depending on both the region and the dominant local culture. In most of China, Muslims live near Han Chinese. Northwest China is known for being extremely patriarchal, with men wielding a large amount of power within households. Muslims from other parts of China are often shocked at how women are treated in that area. For example, women are often forbidden from entering mosques in much of northwest China. In southwest China, however, almost all mosques include a section for women in...

China

China   Reference library

Dru C. Gladney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,543 words

... . Islam in China has been propagated since the seventh century primarily among the people now known as “Hui,” but many of the issues confronting them are also relevant to the Turkic– and Indo-European–speaking Muslims on China's Inner Asian frontier. “Hui teaching” ( Hui jiao ) was the term once used in Chinese for Islam in general; it probably derives from an early Chinese rendering of the name for the modern Uighur people. According to the 2000 census of China, the total Muslim population is 20.3 million, including: Hui (9,816,805); Uighur (8,399,393);...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,431 words

...of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China ( 1798 ), reporting on a British diplomatic mission to China in 1793–1795 led by George Macartney , corroborated these negative evaluations, among other things criticizing the Chinese judiciary system. The Views of the Intellectuals Debate on China, particularly in regard to Confucianism and the Rites Controversy as well as the Chinese political system, became intense among European intellectuals, who often used Chinese issues to promote their favorite philosophical causes. Deists such...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,136 words

...publishing positive articles about China. Buck and Paul Robeson appeared on radio programs and at public rallies extolling black support for China and appealing for help to repeal the Chinese Exclusion Act. Liu Liang-Mo , a spokesman for United China Relief, exhorted students at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania to help China; his articles appeared between 1942 and 1945 in the Pittsburgh Courier . One article praised Robeson's recording of Chinese folk songs as “a strong token of the solidarity between the Chinese and Negro people.” Buck, Liu, and ...

China

China   Reference library

Paul Millar

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,543 words

...gambling and opium smoking, called for ‘a piercing of the old caricatures which depicted [Chinese] as subhuman … to find the real New Zealand –Chinese’ ( NZ Listener , 21 Sep. 1985 ). Such caricatures were stock when Katherine Mansfield began writing. Occasionally she introduces Chinese for local colour, as when Stanley Burnell , in Prelude , purchases cherries from a Chinese fruiterer. But ‘Ole Underwood’ provides a far grittier representation of Wellington's Chinese community to mirror Ole's madness and alienation. Initially the card-playing Chinamen,...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
476 words

...Khan, Emperor of China , tr. E.A. Wallis Budge [London 1928 ]). A.C. Moule , Nestorians in China (London 1940). P. Saeki , The Nestorian Documents and Relics in China 2 (Tokyo 1951). H. Wada , Prokops Rätselwort Serinda und die Verpflanzung des Seidenbaus von China nach dem Oströmischen Reich (Cologne 1970). H. Miyakawa A. Kollautz , Ein Dokument zum Fernhandel zwischen Byzanz und China zur Zeit Theophylakts , BZ 77 (1984) 6–19. Eidem , Das Grab der Prinzessin Ch᾽ih-ti-lien, einer Enkelin des Anagaios (Ana-Kuei der Jou-jan) , BZ 79 (1986)...

China

China   Reference library

Bev Robertson

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... . Chinese archeologists report that beer was first produced in China 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, at roughly the same time that other cradles of civilization showed evidence of some form of beer production. By definition, the production of beer requires the use of grain. In China, the grain in question was rice, sometimes supplemented with wheat or millet. Until relatively recently, beverage alcohol, including beer, did not reach the widespread use in China that it did in other parts of the world. For millennia huangjiu (a drink often referred to as “rice...

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