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Chicago Fire.

The Chicago fire of 8–10 October 1871 is perhaps the most famous urban disaster in American history. Its exact cause is unknown, notwithstanding the legend that it was started by ...

Chicago Fire

Chicago Fire   Reference library

Carl Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...story of Chicago ’s triumphant resurrection from the ashes, endlessly retold, overlooks many social divisions accentuated by the whole experience, but the city’s recovery does reveal the resilience of the individual spirit and the force of urbanization in nineteenth-century America . [ See also Chicago and Cities and Suburbs . ] bibliography Sawislak, Karen. Smoldering City: Chicagoans and the Great Fire, 1871–1874 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Smith, Carl. Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the...

Chicago Fire.

Chicago Fire.   Reference library

Carl Smith

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
282 words

...Chicago Fire. The Chicago fire of 8–10 October 1871 is perhaps the most famous urban disaster in American history. Its exact cause is unknown, notwithstanding the legend that it was started by Mrs. Catherine O'Leary's cow kicking over a lantern. Whatever the conflagration's origin, the combination of a long drought, high winds, a delay in the alarm system, and an overmatched fire department assured catastrophe for the new metropolis, which was constructed almost entirely of wood. The flames destroyed a third of the city, including the entire commercial...

Chicago Fire.

Chicago Fire.  

The Chicago fire of 8–10 October 1871 is perhaps the most famous urban disaster in American history. Its exact cause is unknown, notwithstanding the legend that it was started by ...
Islamic Faith and the Problem of Pluralism: Relations Among the Believers

Islamic Faith and the Problem of Pluralism: Relations Among the Believers   Reference library

Madjid Nurcholish

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,828 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and based on their belief and their good deeds, will be guaranteed to “go to Heaven” and be “free from the fire of Hell.” The above-quoted verse interested many tafsîr experts and produced much controversy. For some it is difficult to reconcile this verse with the common view that everyone who denies the Prophet Muhammad is “ kâfir ” (an infidel), that “the infidels shall not go to heaven,” and that they “shall not be free from the fire of Hell.” Therefore, one of the tafsîr books which is considered as a standard reading material in Indonesian ...

Qur'an and Woman

Qur'an and Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud-Muhsin

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,749 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 6. For details of Fazlur Rahman's discussion of the above double movement methodology—“from the present situation to Qur'anic times, then back to the present”—for particular communities, see his Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), Introduction, especially pp. 4–9. 7. This is a direct contradiction of the classical models which propose that the masculine plural form means male (exclusively). Thus, language is used to make male the norm, and by implication, the female...

The Evolution and Devolution of Religious Knowledge

The Evolution and Devolution of Religious Knowledge   Reference library

Abdul-Karim Soroush

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,758 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1. Farhang Rajaee , “Islam and Modernity: The Reconstruction of an Alternative Shi‘ite Islamic Worldview in Iran,” in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, editors, Fundamentalisms and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), p. 111. 3. Index on Censorship , volume 25, number 4, July–August 1996, pp. 165–178. Notes ...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...comparisons. Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. A reliable translation of ten major Mesopotamian myths. Ehrich, Robert W. , ed. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. 3d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. A comprehensive survey of the archaeological data for prehistoric chronology. Gonen, Rivka. “The Chalcolithic Period.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor, 40–80. A detailed interpretive summary of the evidence. ...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...elaborate as an inevitable antagonism between ‘society’ and ‘culture’, those greater abstract totalities drawn from the intense local, civil, and cultural wars of the turn of the nineteenth century. Guillory, J. , Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation , Chicago, 1993; Habermas, J. , The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society , trans. T. Burger , Cambridge, Mass., 1989; Jacobus, M. , ‘The Art of Managing Books: Romantic Prose and the Writing of the Past’, in A. Reed , ed., ...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with tongues of fire surrounding it; and they began to terrify me. (10) And I went into the tongues of fire and approached a large house built of hailstones; and the walls of the house were like paving stones, all of snow. Its lower floors were of snow; (11) its upper floors were like shooting-stars and lightnings, and in the midst of them were fiery Cherubim, and their heaven was like water. (12) And fire was burning round the walls, and the doors were ablaze with fire. (13) And I entered that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as snow; and there...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...erected a seven-storey factory in 1853 after fire destroyed their earlier, more modest operation. Others, such as *Ticknor & Fields , built relationships with local firms specializing in papermaking, *composition , stereotyping, printing, and *bookbinding . By the 1850s , American book publishing was increasingly centralized in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston; Cincinnati had a brief heyday as a western publishing hub. Firms elsewhere were associated with particular genres; for example, Chicago’s *Rand McNally became America’s leading *map ...

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... Kugel, James L., and Rowan A. Greer. Early Biblical Interpretation. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986. The first part of the book, by Kugel, describes the roots of Jewish biblical criticism. Olmstead, Albert T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948. Still the most in-depth study of the Persian period. Root, Margaret Cool. “From the Heart: Powerful Persianisms in the Art of the Western Empire.” Achaemenid History 6 (1991): 1–29. Vividly demonstrates the visual component of Persian...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...25 und die Fremdvölkerspruche: Unterschiede zwischen hebräischem und griechischem Text’, Bib 72: 474–99. Fishbane, M. (1985), Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel (Oxford: Clarendon). Frank, A. (1995), The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Fretheim, T. E. (1984), The Suffering of God (Philadelphia: Fortress). Gerstenberger, E. (1963), ‘Jeremiah's Complaints: Observations on Jer 15:20–21 ,’ JBL 82: 393–408. Goldman, Y. (1992), Prophétie et royauté au retour de l'exil: Les origines...

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach   Reference library

John J. Collins and John J. Collins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Israel Exploration Society). Long, A. A., and Sedley, D. N. (1987), The Hellenistic Philosophers (2 vols; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Mack, B. L. (1973), Logos und Sophia (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht). ———(1985), Wisdom and the Hebrew Epic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Marböck, J. (1971), Weisheit im Wandel (Bonn: Hanstein). Meyers, C. (1988), Discovering Eve (New York: Oxford University Press). Middendorp, Th. (1973), Die Stellung Jesu Ben Siras zwischen Judentum und Hellenismus (Leiden: Brill). Moxnes, H. (1993),...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Jan. 1996 , at D2. • “Spurred on by this warning, they all continue with their mortal journies [read journeys ] by connecting in ways that will, in the case of death, make their last moments worthwhile.” Mary Houlihan-Skilton , “‘Fat Tuesday’ Needs More Louisiana Magic,” Chicago Sun-Times , 3 Apr. 1996 , at 44. • “Stephen M. Halajko, 2 Chris Dr., [was awarded a building permit] for two one-flue chimnies [read chimneys ] and a fireplace valued at $4,000.” “Building Permits,” Providence J.-Bull . , 9 Jan. 1997 , at C4. F. Proper Names. Although few...

Chicago Public Library

Chicago Public Library  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Established in 1873 after the Great Chicago Fire. Poole, its first Librarian, built the central library’s collections and began circulating books. As the library grew and refined its scope (through ...
Earth, Wind And Fire

Earth, Wind And Fire  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
The origins of this imaginative US group date back to the 60s and Chicago’s black music session circle. Drummer Maurice White (b. 19 December 1941, Memphis, Tennessee, USA) appeared on ...
In Old Chicago

In Old Chicago  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(Fox 1938). One of Hollywood's rare musical disaster movies, the film had the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 providing the disaster and Alice Faye providing the singing. Saloon singer Belle ...
fires in theatres

fires in theatres  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Fire was once a major hazard in the theatre. Both the London Patent Theatres, Drury Lane and Covent Garden, were burnt down twice, the first in 1672 and 1809, the ...
Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui

Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui  

A: Bertolt Brecht (with Margarete Steffin) W: 1941 Pf: 1958, Stuttgart Pb: 1957 Tr: 1976 G: Pol. drama in 17 scenes, prologue, and epilogue; German hexameter verse S: Chicago and Cicero, 1929–38 C: ...
Chicago

Chicago  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Theatre dates back to the earliest days of the city when, in 1837, Harry Isherwood and Alexander McVicker transformed a tavern into a playhouse. By the 1860s new theatre buildings ...

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