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Charles Horton Cooley

(1864–1929) Cooley was one of the first generation of American sociologists, but an eccentric who differed from most of his peers. Whereas the majority of the pioneers were ...

Cooley, Charles Horton

Cooley, Charles Horton (1864–1929)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
819 words

... “Charles Horton Cooley,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1968), vol. 3, pp. 378–82. Cohen, Marshall J. Charles Horton Cooley and the Social Self in American Thought (New York, 1982). Coser, Lewis A. “Charles Horton Cooley,” in Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context (New York, 1971), pp. 305–30. Jandy, Edward C. Charles Horton Cooley: His Life and His Social Theory (New York, 1942). Schubert, Hans-Joachim. Demokratische Identität: der soziologische Pragmatismus von Charles Horton...

Cooley, Charles Horton

Cooley, Charles Horton   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
114 words

..., Charles Horton ( 1864–1929 ) A philosopher and sociologist whose work at the University of Michigan engaged with the question of the relationship of the individual to society. In Human Nature and Social Order ( 1902 ) Cooley wrote: ‘In the study of society we must learn to see mankind in psychical wholes, rather than in artificial separation. We must see and feel the communal life of family and local groups as immediate facts…’. Cooley generated the concept of the primary group as the formative basis of social life, and the idea of the ...

Cooley, Charles Horton

Cooley, Charles Horton (1864–1929)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
352 words

..., Charles Horton ( 1864–1929 ) Cooley was one of the first generation of American sociologists, but an eccentric who differed from most of his peers. Whereas the majority of the pioneers were Social Darwinists , Cooley was a less mechanical evolutionist: most were aiming to make sociology a rigorously objective science, while Cooley was more concerned with introspection and imagination—one of the earliest of humanistic sociologists . Cooley sought to abolish the dualisms of society/individual and body/mind, emphasizing instead their interconnections,...

Cooley, Charles Horton

Cooley, Charles Horton  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

..., Charles Horton ( 1864–1929 ) A major figure in early twentieth-century American sociology who laid much of the groundwork for symbolic interactionism . Cooley refused the methodological individualism of many of his contemporaries and instead insisted that the self develops in and through social relations—that self and society are “twin-born.” Like Max Weber , he concluded that sociology was fundamentally concerned with understanding the meanings that persons attribute to their actions. It was, therefore, an interpretative field allied with the...

Charles Horton Cooley

Charles Horton Cooley  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1864–1929)Cooley was one of the first generation of American sociologists, but an eccentric who differed from most of his peers. Whereas the majority of the pioneers were Social Darwinists, Cooley ...
primary group

primary group  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A small group, such as a sports team, family, or professional colleagues, which has its own norms and in which there is much face-to-face interpersonal interaction,
looking-glass self

looking-glass self  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A term introduced by Cooley to refer to the dependence of our social self or social identity on our appearance to others, especially significant others. Our self-concept or self image—the ideas and ...
indirect relationships

indirect relationships  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
*Impersonal, institutional relationships between people, mediated by bureaucracies, organizations, markets, corporations, and technological systems (especially information technology). The ...
Howard Becker

Howard Becker  

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Overview Page
(1928– )From a student at the University of Chicago to one of the most well-respected sociology professors in the world, Howard Becker has made an enormous contribution to the symbolic interactionist ...
group

group  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A collection of individuals interacting with one another so that each person influences and is influenced by each other person to some degree. Group members are distinguished from a mere aggregate of ...
self

self  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The elusive ‘I’ that shows an alarming tendency to disappear when we try to introspect it. See bundle theory of the mind or self, Cartesian dualism, personal identity.
symbolic interactionism

symbolic interactionism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Th]A theoretical approach in sociology developed by George Herbert Mead, which places strong emphasis on the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction.
Erving Goffman

Erving Goffman  

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(1922–82)The most influential micro-sociologist during the 1960s and 1970s, Goffman pioneered the dramaturgical perspective for sociology. The influences on his work were many. After completing his ...
primary groups

primary groups  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...groups and secondary groups A distinction drawn by the sociologist Charles Horton Cooley between two categories of relationship. Primary groups and secondary groups are differentiated by the degree of face-to-face interaction, affective ties, and mutual identification among individuals that bind them. Primary groups include the family and circles of close friends. They play a major role in the formation of personal identities and produce strong senses of common collective identity. Secondary groups are typified by voluntary associations of persons...

indirect relationships

indirect relationships   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
118 words

...relationships Social relationships established without directly personal communication—e.g., through bureaucracies, markets, or impersonal information technology. The concept is a refinement of Charles Horton Cooley 's distinction between primary and secondary relationships, introduced by Craig Calhoun in a series of articles in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including “ The Infrastructure of Modernity: Indirect Social Relationships, Information Technology, and Social Integration ” ( 1992 ). Indirect relationships are not likely to be recognized as...

group

group   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
246 words

... and out-groups are reciprocally formed. Other models distinguished corporate groups (which control a property or valuable skill) from noncorporate groups ; primary groups (whose members are closely connected) from secondary groups (whose members are not; see Charles Horton Cooley ); and action groups (whose members come together to perform a specific task) from those organized by more enduring criteria. The question of how groups organize themselves internally and interact is of central interest to many social scientists. This is often referred...

self

self   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
575 words

...which maturation is inscribed. A sociological perspective on the self emerged in the early part of the twentieth century in the work of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead . Drawing on his experiences with his own children, Cooley developed the concept of the looking-glass self , which asserted that individuals are profoundly affected in their own actions by the way they imagine that others see them. For Cooley, this mirroring effect extends to our apprehensions about our “appearance, manners, aims, deeds, character, friends, and so on” ( Human...

Becker, Howard S.

Becker, Howard S. (1928–)   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
403 words

...also one of the central works of labeling theory —a major orientation within American sociology in the 1950s and 1960s. Building on accounts of the significance of the perceptions of others in the formation of the self (a key principle in the symbolic interactionism of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead ), as well as on earlier accounts of labeling and juvenile delinquency by Frank Tannenbaum, Becker argued that deviance has little to do with the nature of specific acts and much to do with how society defines those acts. These definitions often...

symbolic interactionism

symbolic interactionism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
934 words

...to ‘others’. The most basic unit of interactionist analysis is that of the self , which stresses the ways in which people can (indeed must) come to view themselves as objects, and assume the role of others through a process of role-taking. This idea is clarified in Charles Horton Cooley 's notion of the looking-glass self and Mead's more general idea of ‘the self’. A fourth theme, derived from Georg Simmel , is that interactionism looks beneath these symbols, processes, and interactions in order to determine underlying patterns or forms of social life....

Sociology.

Sociology.   Reference library

Robert C. Bannister

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,198 words

...Chicago under Albion W. Small in 1892 , and at Columbia University under Franklin Giddings two years later. The most important studies written in this period, however, were by professors at Wisconsin, Michigan, and Yale: Edward A. Ross , Social Control ( 1901 ); Charles Horton Cooley , Human Nature and the Social Order ( 1902 ); and Sumner's Folkways ( 1906 ). In 1895 , Small founded the American Journal of Sociology , later the official organ of the American Sociological Society (ASS), organized in 1905 . Although prewar sociology was a victim...

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