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Charlemagne

Subject: History

(Latin Carolus Magnus, Charles the Great) (742–814) King of the Franks (768–814) and Holy Roman emperor (as Charles I) (800–14). He created an empire by conquering and Christianizing the ...

Charlemagne

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Latin Carolus Magnus , ‘Charles the Great’) Charlemagne ( 742–814 ) became sole king of the Franks in 771 and the first Holy Roman Emperor in 800 . He ruled over most of western Europe and was noted as a law-giver, administrator, protector of the church and promoter of education. He was married nine times. One of his wives is said to have persuaded him to drink white wine instead of red, to avoid staining his beard, which is why the white-wine-producing Burgundian vineyard of Corton Charlemagne was so called, in contrast with the next-door...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

Stephen MORILLO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
1,046 words

...of his empire, justifies Charlemagne’s reputation as the “father of Europe.” Stephen MORILLO Wabash College Further Reading Bullough, D. A. (1970). Europae pater: Charlemagne and his achievement in the light of recent scholarship. English Historical Review , 85 , 58–105. Bullough, D. (1974). The age of Charlemagne . London:G. P. Putnam and Sons. Einhard & Notker the Stammerer. (1969). Two lives of Charlemagne . L. Thorpe , (Trans.). Baltimore: Penguin Classics. King, P. D. (Trans.). (1987). Charlemagne: Translated sources . London:...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
115 words

... ( 742–814 ) King of the Franks ( 768 ) and crowned by Pope Leo III as emperor of the West ( 800 ). He and his Paladins are the subject of numerous chansons de geste , of which the Chanson de Roland is the most famous ( see Roland ). Of the three groups of French chansons de geste concerned with Charlemagne, only the first, the geste du roi , is represented in English, in such romances as Otuel , Sir Ferumbras , and The Sege of Melayne . The tradition of learning Charlemagne established at his court (led by the Northumbrian Alcuin )...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
146 words

... ( 742–814 ) King of the Franks ( 768 ) and crowned by Pope Leo III as emperor of the West ( 800 ), the son of Pepin the Short. He and his Paladins are the subject of numerous chansons de geste , of which the Chanson de Roland is the most famous ( see Roland ). Of the three groups of French chansons de geste concerned with Charlemagne, only the first, the geste du roi , is represented in English, in such romances as Otuel , Sir Ferumbras , and The Sege of Melayne . As well as being the subject of romances, Charlemagne is of...

Charlemagne

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Paul A. Hollingsworth

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
496 words

... (Κάρουλος), Frankish ruler ( 768–814 ); born 742 , died Aachen 28 Jan. 814 . The son of Pippin III , Charlemagne became sole king of the Franks in 771 . After conquering the Lombards in 774 he came into direct conflict with Byz. interests in Italy. Ohnsorge ( Konstantinopel und der Okzident [ Darmstadt 1966 ] 1–28) interprets his assumption of the title patrikios in 775 as a statement of anti-Byz. intentions. Perhaps to counter the revolt of Elpidios , in 781 Charlemagne sealed an alliance with Empress Irene by engaging his...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
82 words

... [Hist.] ( 742–814 ) The king of the Franks in 768–814 . He defeated and Christianized the Lombards, Saxons, and Avars and created the Holy Roman Empire, which he ruled from 800 to 814 . As well as encouraging commerce and agriculture, he promoted the arts and education. > A leader or ruler of a large empire You can conquer the world like Charlemagne. But you better be prepared to kill everyone and you better start with me. Tom Coates Plastic Bag ...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (768–814)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... by Pepin the Short ( reg 751–68 ), Charlemagne ’s father, and consecrated in 775 in the presence of Charlemagne. Charlemagne also patronized the building of the monastery church at Aniane, near Montpellier, in 782 , and the monastery of St Riquier, near Abbeville, during the 790s. The palace complex at Aachen was the most important: the chapel was intended to embody the renewed empire and to reflect the divine order—the king at the centre of his realm, as God was at the centre of his creation. Charlemagne’s court, established permanently at Aachen ...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...initiated reform of church and society, the continuation of military success was the central fact of Charlemagne's reign. The scope of Charlemagne's activity reflected the size of his empire: he campaigned from the Ebro to the Danube, the Elbe to the Po, against Byzantines and Muslims, Avars and Danes, Saxons and Slavs. Campaigns took place annually, contemporaries recording their surprise in those years when no army was sent forth. Before the 790s, Charlemagne as a rule led in the field in person; thereafter his sons and favoured aristocrats were given...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

Thomas O’Loughlin

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
731 words

...Charlemagne), ed. W. Grundlach in MGH , Epistolae, 3 (1892), 469–657. Life by Einhard ed. O. Holder-Egger (Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum, 1911), and Eng. tr. by P. E. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures, 3; Peterborough, Ont., 1998), 15–39. Eng. tr. of part of the ‘Codex Carolinus’ in P. D. King , Charlemagne: Translated Sources (privately pr., Lambrigg, Cumbria, 1987), 269–307. Other primary material listed in BHL 1: 238–45 (nos 1577–618). D. Bullough , The Age of Charlemagne ...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (814)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
57 words

...Charlemagne (d. 814 ) King of the Franks and head of the Holy Roman Empire in western Europe. Contemporary of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid , with whom he established technological and economic exchange. Drove Muslims out of Gaul (France). Formed an alliance with the unconquered population of Spain to support Christian-ruled kingdoms in the north against the Muslim-ruled...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne ([Na])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
127 words

... [Na] Son of Pippin the Short, Charlemagne united the Franks to become their sole leader in ad 771 . In ad 800 he was crowned emperor in Rome by the Pope. Contemporary biographers describe him as a cultured and very able person. He re‐established many of the traditions of the former Roman world, especially the western Christian church. Surviving images of him show him as the Christian successor to the Roman emperors, and this is also how he is depicted on his coins and in his palace at Aachen, Germany. As a military leader he extended the ...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
738 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 742–814 ), king of the Franks (r. 768–814 ) and emperor of the West (r. 800–814 ). Einhard, the famous Charlemagne (742–814). The king and his paladins battle against the Saracens. Miniature from Charlemagne and His Paladins, thirteenth century. Private Collection/Index/The Bridgeman Art Library International biographer of Charlemagne, begins his description of the deeds of his hero with a long enumeration of all the wars led by the emperor. This underlines the importance of war for the renown of a medieval ruler. Fighting successfully...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne   Reference library

Hanneke Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Wine (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,224 words

... , king of the Franks 768–814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800, the man who ushered in civilization, order, and prosperity after the long Dark Ages, ruling a Christian kingdom based at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) which included virtually all of France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland. Charlemagne’s name is associated by modern wine drinkers with one of the greatest white burgundies, Corton-Charlemagne (whose vineyards include a plot known as Le Charlemagne), produced on land he gave to the Abbey of Saulieu in 775 ( see aloxe-corton for more detail)....

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (c.742–814)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
192 words

... ( c. 742–814 ), ‘Charles the Great’, first Emperor (from 800) of what was later to be called the Holy Roman Empire . On the death in 768 of their father Pepin III , king of the Franks, Charlemagne and his brother divided the kingdom; he became sole ruler in 771. He extended his dominion. First he subdued Lombardy, perhaps at the request of Hadrian I . Then he conducted campaigns against the Saxons ( 772–98 ) and against the Muslims in Spain ( 785–801 ). On Christmas Day 800 he was crowned Emperor by Leo III in Rome. At home Charlemagne created...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
178 words

... ( 742–814 ) (lit. Charles the Great ) King of the Franks ( 768–814 ) and Holy Roman Emperor ( 800–14 ). The eldest son of Pepin III (the Short) , he inherited half the Frankish kingdom ( 768 ), annexed the remainder on his brother Carloman's death ( 771 ), and built a large empire. He invaded Italy twice and took the Lombard throne ( 773 ). He embarked on a long and brutal conquest of Saxony ( 772–804 ), annexed Bavaria ( 788 ) and defeated the Avars of the middle Danube ( 791–96 , 804 ). He undertook campaigns against the Moors in Spain. In ...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (747–814)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
604 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Jan 814 , his son Louis succeeded him. In the Middle Ages , Charlemagne remained the figure of the Christian prince, unifier of Christendom , alongside Constantine , and the symbol of the imperial idea, as his canonization by Frederick Barbarossa in 1165 confirmed. Charlemagne surrounded by philosophers . 12th-c. tapestry. Halberstadt (Saxe-Anhalt), cathedral treasury. Einhard and Notker the Stammerer , Two Lives of Charlemagne , L. Thorpe (tr.), Harmondsworth, 1969. Charlemagne. Translated Sources , P. D. King (ed.), Lambrig, 1987. J....

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (c.742–814)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
606 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Day 800 Charles was crowned emperor by the pope. Thereafter, Charlemagne was based mostly at his Aachen court where embassies came from the caliph in *Baghdad . Administrative records, letters, and poems show a burst of governmental activity, with repeated oath-swearings, extended religious reform, and a remaking of the elites and the army. The empire Charlemagne bequeathed ( 814 ) to his sole surviving son, *Louis the Pious , was a going concern. The coronation of Emperor Charlemagne by Pope Leo III on Christmas Eve ad 800, from Chroniques des...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
283 words

...century (Louvre), said to represent him, is probably his grandson, but is derived from the equestrian Marcus Aurelius in Rome, then thought to represent Constantine. According to some versions of the legend of S. Giles , Charlemagne was absolved from a sin by the saint, who received a message from an angel, but S. Giles died before Charlemagne was born, and the legend probably refers to his grandfather, Charles...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
124 words

... (Latin Carolus Magnus , Charles the Great) (742–814) King of the Franks (768–814) and Holy Roman emperor (as Charles I) (800–14). He created an empire by conquering and Christianizing the Saxons (772–77; 782–85), Lombards (774), and Avars (791–99), and restoring areas of Italy to the pope. His coronation by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas Day, 800, is taken as having inaugurated the Holy Roman Empire. He gave government new moral drive and religious responsibility, and encouraged commerce and agriculture. A well-educated man, he promoted the arts...

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (742–814)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
240 words

... ( Charles I ) ( 742–814 ). The son of Pippin ( Pépin le Bref ), first Arnulfing king of Francia, Charles succeeded to the throne in 768 . Initially his reputation rested on the successes of his Frankish armies in Aquitaine, in Italy, against the Avars, and against the Saxons, his only military disaster being the destruction of his rearguard at Rencesvals (Roncesvalles)—the subject of the Chanson de Roland —in 778 . Victory guaranteed him a degree of authority over all the dukes and counts of his disparate realms. Charles inaugurated a...

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