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Central South American States

The Gran Chaco region includes southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and the northern half of Paraguay; it has for most of its history remained marginal to the economies of South ...

Central South American States

Central South American States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,510 words

...Central South American States . The Gran Chaco region includes southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and the northern half of Paraguay; it has for most of its history remained marginal to the economies of South America. The region is a large and densely wooded flood plain in the center of the continent, in which there are virtually no rocks or economically desireable mineral deposits. During the winter, the region is very dry, and many of the water sources (including some rivers) disappear. In the summer, abundant rainfall brings about vigorous plant...

Central South American States

Central South American States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Gran Chaco region includes southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and the northern half of Paraguay; it has for most of its history remained marginal to the economies of South America. ...
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., but fewer than one-fifth of children in the south did. Similarly, although literacy was nearly universal in New England, nearly 20 per cent of white southerners reported an inability to read or write. Most southern states proscribed teaching enslaved African-Americans to read or write; an estimated 5–10 per cent of slaves were literate. After the Civil War, when southern states created public school systems and former slaves sought education for themselves and their children, the ability of African Americans to write (and, hence, presumably to read)...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...was used by virtually all indigenous groups throughout the continent. Good examples are known from the Olmecs, Zapotecs, Mixtecs, Purépechas, and Aztecs in Mexico, and the Incas in Andean South America. Although these people did use some developing phonetic signs, only the Mayas in Mesoamerica (the region comprising today’s Central America, southern Mexico, and central Mexico) developed a method of writing that represents phonetic language, from the 3 rd century bc . Theirs was a system that combined logograms, phonetic syllables, and ideograms, and it was...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...oral history , then with the usual range of central government and local records, such as those of civil registration , census enumerators’ books , parish registers , wills , etc., before turning to records that deal particularly with immigration . It is important to remember that none of these records was created for family history purposes. It is often hard to find information about working‐class Asians. Scattered fragments of information have to be pieced together. It is even harder to find records about South Asian women, though they can sometimes be...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...population (51 million in 1910 , with 2.1 million in Vienna) embraced not only German-speakers, but also the peoples of most of the now independent states of central Europe. Following World War I, the borders were redrawn, creating the (first) Republic of Austria, with Czechoslovakia and Hungary as independent states. In 1938 , Austria was annexed to the German Reich, and in 1945 occupied by American, British, French, and Soviet forces until the Second Republic officially came into being in 1955 . Today Austria’s population is c .8.2 million, of whom...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...throughout the empire, in 1807 , it provided refuge for freed slaves from the rest of West Africa. Liberia, too, became a home for former slaves from North America after 1822 , the American Colonisation Society having been established in 1816 to facilitate their return. West African intellectuals including E. W. Blyden , Samuel Ajayi Crowther , and J. E. Casely Hayford produced early works central to forging notions of pan-African identity. Crowther’s The Gospel on the Banks of the Niger ( 1859 ) recorded his prescient concern with the importance of...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...among mankind.’ The initial impetus fuelling this burst of idealism was the *American Revolution , which soon joined more familar but persistently influential models drawn from Roman, Greek, Venetian, Anglo-Saxon, and Celtic antiquity as an ideal of European utopianism. Radical political thought in Britain was widely inspired by the notion that the more equitable conditions of society in the young United States could be emulated in Europe. Utopian conceptions of America also encouraged schemes for migration, such as S. T. *Coleridge and Robert...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...corporate taxes in many countries. Currently, it is India’s leading publisher of scholarly and reference books, with a list of more than 3,000 titles. In the 1960s , the United States’ PL 480 programme resulted in more than a thousand American college-level textbooks being registered in India at subsidized prices. Some four million books were distributed through this route. American publishers were late to enter the field and when they did so, it was with higher-level textbooks. *Prentice Hall set up business in 1963 , while McGraw-Hill entered the market...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...that enemies rode out the storm. The political set-up meant, therefore, not only that there was no single central market represented by a capital (such as Paris or London), but also that, when by the late 18 th century the book industry needed vigorous institutional measures, the Italian states were too weak and too divided to supply them. The second event contributing to the long-term decline of the Italian publishing industry was the discovery of America in 1492 and of the sea route to the East in 1497–9 , which gradually shifted the balance of power in...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Under the Irish Free State (Constitution) Act of 1922 , Irish was recognized as the state’s national language, and Irish became compulsory in schools. The new government set up its own publishing venture, An *Gúm (The Scheme) in 1927 . By the mid- 1930s it had published more than 400 works, including original material in Irish, modern versions of older Irish classics, and translations of foreign novels, particularly novels in English. In some respects the state’s support for Irish-language publishing went hand in hand with its enthusiasm for...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...As the number of translations increased, the Buddhist canon expanded rapidly and demanded countless copies of texts; this is reflected in the hoard of tens of thousands of Buddhist scrolls discovered at Dunhuang, a cave complex in Gansu province, a desert outpost in Chinese central Asia. There, in 1907 , while leading a British archaeological expedition from India, Aurel Stein was shown previously sealed caves containing enormous quantities of mostly Buddhist artefacts dating from the 4 th to the 10 th centuries. Most of the Chinese objects that he...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...at times, when I am writing my stories to kindle the hearts of Israel to the service of the Blessed One, I take a volume from the shelves and read in it and establish a bond with our sages, of blessed memory, and with their holy words. These quotations from Agnon underline the central role played by the book in traditional daily Jewish life. At least since the Middle Ages Jews have identified strongly with their traditional literature and have laid great emphasis on studying these texts through MSS and printed books in Hebrew and Aramaic and in all other...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...not in books. The lack of an effective central government in Germany meant that publishing was still carried on under exclusive regulations in each individual state. This perhaps worked well enough while the book market was relatively small, but became problematic as it expanded. The most urgent needs were for a general system of copyright and for measures to prevent the production of cheap, shoddily printed unauthorized editions in other territories. Such piracy was not only widely tolerated but, in some states, even encouraged. The demise of the...

International Indian Treaty Council

International Indian Treaty Council  

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is an organization of Indigenous Peoples from North, Central, and South America and the Pacific. The IITC mission is to work for the sovereignty ...
Central America

Central America  

Central American children's books reflect the history and culture of the bridge of seven nations (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama) that connects North and ...
pan-Americanism

pan-Americanism  

The movement towards economic, military, political, and social cooperation among the 21 republics of South, Central, and North America. The first Pan-American conference was held in 1889 in ...
Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes Scholarship  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Any of several scholarships awarded annually and tenable at Oxford University by students from certain Commonwealth countries, South Africa, the United States, and Germany. They are named after the ...
Classic

Classic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]The fourth of five general cultural stages proposed by G. Willey and P. Phillips in 1958 as a framework for the study of ancient communities in the Americas. The Classic embraced communities with ...
Mephitidae

Mephitidae  

; superorder Ferae, order Carnivora)A family, formerly included in the Mustelidae, of nocturnal mammals that inhabit fields and woods, but also occur close to human habitations, feeding on ...

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