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Central American Court of Justice

The Court established by the additional Convention to the General Convention of the Central American Peace Conference, Washington, 20 December 1907 (206 C.T.S. 79) between the five Central ...

Central American Court of Justice

Central American Court of Justice   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
212 words

... The World Court ( 1925 ), Chap. 5; Hudson, The Central American Court of Justice, 26 A.J.I.L. 759 (1932) . A new Central American Court of Justice was established by the Charter of the Organization of Central American States in 1965 but without compulsory jurisdiction and without the right of access for individuals. ‘In its present incarnation the Central American Court of Justice was established in 1991 and is the judicial branch of the Central American Integration System (SICA) [which replaced the Organization of Central American States] … [it]...

Central American Court of Justice

Central American Court of Justice  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Court established by the additional Convention to the General Convention of the Central American Peace Conference, Washington, 20 December 1907 (206 C.T.S. 79) between the five Central American ...
Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...proper development of the law in the courts. The construction of the commercial law by Lord Chief Justice *Mansfield between 1756 and 1788 was the clearest contemporary example of the continuing willingness of common law judges to create substantive law independently of the legislature, despite their modest claims to a merely declarative function. Moreover, in the absence of legislation for devolved local government, the central courts and their judges maintained some administrative functions. These took the form of the regulation of the corporations and...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...published editions of European and American books, and America’s 23 Yiddish periodicals had a circulation of 808,000 by 1910 . For immigrant central and eastern European Jews, as for newly arrived Italians and many others, access to American printed works in their native languages became a tool for creating ethnic identity and community. 4 1890–1950: modern business and cultural capital 4.1 Trends in publishing and marketing In some respects, the history of book production, distribution, and consumption between 1890 and 1950 is one of continuity with the...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...part of the civil record, they can have certificates prepared later that are witnessed by magistrates, a procedure in accordance with the Christian Marriage Act 1892 . With the exception of Azad Kashmir, all zones of Pakistan make divorce subject to forms of arbitration. In Azad Kashmir the ‘bare talaq ’, a form of divorce in which a husband can sever a relationship with a triple declaration of the phrase ‘I divorce thee’, still has practitioners. The oral quality of the bare talaq decree may make a paper trail difficult to find. Civil courts can grant...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...report, which painted a terrifying picture of the vulnerability of the English countryside to a constant horde of itinerant criminals, vagrants, and beggars. That report, Chadwick claimed, ‘proved’ that crimes against property were not ‘caused by blameless poverty or destitution’ but by ‘the temptations of the profit of a career of depredation, as compared with the profits of honest and even well paid industry’. Chadwick was also the author of the deterrent New Poor Law of 1834 , with its central principle of ‘less eligible’ treatment for paupers in...

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,261 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...more central to the development of psychoanalytic criticism, and indeed of psychoanalysis itself. Since the time of Malone Hamlet had been regarded as especially revealing of Shakespeare’s own emotional nature (its plot occasionally related both to the death of Shakespeare’s father John in 1601 and to the death of his son Hamnet in 1596 ), and in 1919 T. S. Eliot famously declared the play an artistic failure on the grounds that Shakespeare’s depiction of Gertrude did not supply an adequate ‘objective correlative’ for the private sense of...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...would do full justice to the demands of traditional Islamic scholarship, in respect of both the shape of the text (i.e. the form of the text as it appears in the early MSS without vocalization and diacritics) and the way it was presented. The lead was taken by scholars at Al-Azhar mosque-university in Cairo, the pre-eminent seat of traditional learning in Islam. After seventeen years of preparatory work, their edition was published in 1924 , under the auspices of King Fu’ād of Egypt. It was printed orthographically in such a way that the shape of the original...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...books. Continental *romances were translated at noble courts. Particularly in towns, the need for reading, writing, and accounting increased, as did the number of schools, scriptoria, and administrative *archives . The introduction of paper c .1350 contributed further to more widespread and informal use of writing (private letters, copies of documents) ( see 10 ). Books and documents of particular importance, however, were still written on locally produced parchment. Around 1500 , the majority of books proper were presumably liturgical and devotional...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...While the main line of descent traces the printed book in the West back through the medieval *codex to the *scrolls of ancient Greece and Rome, it is important to remember that these latter civilizations arose after, and alongside, a number of other ancient cultures that also had writing. Although it is likely that writing arose independently in the Near East, China, and Central America, Greece and Rome interacted regularly with the cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Germanic tribes, and Israel, so that a full consideration of the book in the ancient...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...But the Peterloo massacre and its aftermath gave a new spur to the creation of visions of ‘true’ and ‘false’ Christianity by different social groups that were now also inflected by other emergent political and economic languages of class and constitutionalism. The immediate cause of offence was the interlocking of civil and religious oppression: two Anglican ministers were prominent among the magistrates who ordered the cavalry charge on a peaceful demonstration and then used the courts to punish the victims. With equal zeal, Anglican and Wesleyan officials in...

Fay v. Noia

Fay v. Noia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
372 U.S. 391 (1963), argued 7–8 Jan. 1963, decided by vote of 6 to 3; Brennan for the Court, Harlan, Clark, and Stewart in dissent. The relationship between the national government and the states is ...
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez

Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
436 U.S. 49 (1978), argued 29 Nov. 1977, decided 15 May 1978 by vote of 7 to 1; Marshall for the Court, White in dissent, Blackmun not participating. The 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act applied most of ...
Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
427 U.S. 50 (1976), argued 24 Mar. 1976, decided 24 June 1976 by vote of 5 to 4; Stevens for a plurality of the Court, Powell concurring, Stewart, Brennan, Marshall, and Blackmun in dissent. Although ...
Supreme Court

Supreme Court  

The highest court in the USA, established by Article 3 of the US Constitution. Its members are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. Early in its history, under the ...
Eichman, United States v.

Eichman, United States v.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
496 U.S. 310 (1990), argued 14 May 1990, decided 11 June 1990 by vote of 5 to 4; Brennan for the Court, Rehnquist, White, Stevens, and O’Connor in dissent. United States v. Eichman involved two ...
Flast v. Cohen

Flast v. Cohen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
392 U.S. 83 (1968), argued 12 Mar. 1968, decided 10 June 1968 by vote of 8 to 1; Warren for the Court, Douglas, Stewart, and Fortas concurring separately, Harlan in dissent. A group of taxpayers sued ...
Gonzales v. Carhart; Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America

Gonzales v. Carhart; Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
127 S. Ct. 1610 (2007), argued 8 Nov. 2006, decided 18 Apr. 2007 by vote of 5 to 4; Kennedy for the Court; Thomas, joined by Scalia, concurring; Ginsburg, joined by Stevens, Souter, and Breyer, in ...
Carter v. Carter Coal Co.

Carter v. Carter Coal Co.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
298 U.S. 238 (1936), argued 11, 12 Mar. 1936, decided 18 Mar. 1936 by vote of 5 to 4; Sutherland for the Court, Cardozo, Brandeis, and Stone in dissent, Hughes dissenting in part. The Carter case ...
common law

common law  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
1 The part of English law based on rules developed by the royal courts during the first three centuries after the Norman Conquest (1066) as a system applicable to the whole country, as opposed to ...

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