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Overview

Census, Federal.

The decennial population census originated in the 1787 federal Constitution as a mechanism for determining each state's political representation in the House of Representatives and ...

Census, Federal.

Census, Federal.   Reference library

Margo Anderson

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
618 words

...Census, Federal. The decennial population census originated in the 1787 federal Constitution as a mechanism for determining each state's political representation in the House of Representatives and electoral college . The Constitution (art. 1, sec. 2) specifies that representatives and direct taxes are “apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers” and goes on to require a census every ten years to determine those numbers. The census counted everyone in the country, except “Indians not...

Census, Federal

Census, Federal   Reference library

Margo A. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
798 words

..., Federal The decennial population census originated in the 1787 federal Constitution as a mechanism for determining each state’s political representation in the House of Representatives and Electoral College. The Constitution (Article 1, Section 2) specifies that representatives and direct taxes are “apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers” and goes on to require a census every ten years to determine those numbers. The census counted everyone in the country, except “Indians not...

Census, Federal.

Census, Federal.  

The decennial population census originated in the 1787 federal Constitution as a mechanism for determining each state's political representation in the House of Representatives and electoral college. ...
48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...by New England emigrants. Few southern states or localities established public schooling before the Civil War, both because wealthy planters resisted paying to educate poorer white farmers’ children and because populations were widely dispersed. In 1840 , the first time the US census enumerated school attendance, 38.4 per cent of white children aged 5–19 went to public or private school for some portion of the year; by 1860 , attendance had increased to 58.6 per cent. Beneath these aggregate numbers lay significant regional variation: more than four-fifths...

Remote Relatives

Remote Relatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,767 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...death penalty was inherently unconstitutional .) • “The Census Bureau has a remedy for the next scheduled head count, in 2000 . It is called sampling, a method similar to that used in public opinion polls that extrapolates the characteristics of a large group by talking to a representative part of it.” Steven A. Holmes , “2 Communities, Poles Apart, Illustrate Debate on Census,” N.Y. Times , 30 Aug. 1997 , at 1. ( That modifies method —9 words and 2 nouns before. A possible revision: The Census Bureau has a remedy for the next scheduled head count, in...

electoral geography

electoral geography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The geographical analysis of elections; the study of the spatial patterns of voting and power. Johnston et al. (2004) Pol. Geog. 23, 4 find that ‘similar people vote differently in different places’ ...
Reapportionment Cases

Reapportionment Cases  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Collective name of six cases argued 13 November 1963 and decided 15 June 1964: involving Alabama—Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 633 (1964), decided by vote of 8 to 1, Warren for the Court, Harlan in ...
Kirkpatrick v. Preisler

Kirkpatrick v. Preisler  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
394 U.S. 526 (1969), argued 13 Jan. 1969, decided 7 April 1969 by vote of 6 to 3; Brennan for the Court, Fortas concurring, Harlan, Stewart, and White in dissent. In Kirkpatrick the Supreme Court ...
Johnson v. De Grandy

Johnson v. De Grandy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
512 U.S. 997 (1994), argued 4 Oct. 1993, decided 30 June 1994 by a vote of 7 to 2; Souter for the Court, O’Connor concurring, Kennedy concurring in part and concurring in the judgment, Thomas and ...
Abrams v. Johnson

Abrams v. Johnson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
521 U.S. 74 (1997), argued 9 Dec. 1996, decided 19 June 1997 by vote of 5 to 4; Kennedy for the Court, Breyer in dissent. Following the 1990 census, the Supreme Court was asked repeatedly to assess ...
Shaw v. Reno

Shaw v. Reno  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
509 U.S. 630 (1993), argued 20 Apr. 1993, decided 28 June 1993 by vote of 5 to 4; O’Connor for the Court, White, Blackmun, Stevens, and Souter in dissent. Before 1991 the state of North Carolina had ...
census

census   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... Data for an entire population —as opposed to a random sample . In England the most famous early census is that of the ‘Domesday Book’. The first modern census was the 1666 census of the 3215 inhabitants of New France (now Canada!). In Europe the first complete demographic census was that in Sweden in 1749 . The first federal census in the USA took place in 1790 , and the first complete demographic censuses in both Britain and France occurred in 1801 . In both the United Kingdom and the USA, censuses now occur every ten...

Jarvis, Edward

Jarvis, Edward (1803–84)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
176 words

...where he and his wife developed a joint psychiatric practice. Jarvis became interested in statistics when he noticed that the 1840 Federal Census seemed to show an usually large level of insanity among African-Americans. Jarvis challenged the accuracy of the data, and rectified the error; he was then invited to become a consultant for the 1850 census, where he developed the belief that accurate census data was essential in understanding social and economic change. He became particularly interested in comparative mortality rates, and wrote essays...

electoral geography

electoral geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...upon the environment, and the drawing of constituency boundaries; in India, for example, constituency boundaries had to be redrawn frequently to take into account the latest census figures, reorganization of states, graduation of some of the union territories into states, and bifurcation or trifurcation of some states, to fulfil the demands and aspirations of the people within a new federal structure ( Singh (2000) Pol. Geog. 19, 4...

Demographics

Demographics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,699 words

...The role of the Census Bureau, which is a part of the United States Department of Commerce, has been central to the determination and discussion of the demographic realities of the Latino and Latina population. As the premiere statistical agency of the United States, the policies and practices of the Census Bureau have become critical concerns for the Latino and Latina community in a wide range of areas; demographic data and other information are also generated by a wide range of agencies and institutions ranging from other federal agencies, local...

Land Policy, Federal.

Land Policy, Federal.   Reference library

Donald Worster

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
887 words

...While all of these reservations were made in the name of conserving natural resources, the government continued its policy of disposal, giving away or selling land well beyond the “closing of the frontier” supposedly documented in the census of 1890 . But withdrawals for conservation did mark a significant change in federal policy, whether saving spectacular natural scenery or safeguarding economic resources. The plunder of the Great Lakes forests by timber companies in the later nineteenth century convinced many that government must retain some of its lands...

Public Land Policy

Public Land Policy   Reference library

Donald Worster

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...all of these reservations were made in the name of conserving natural resources, the government continued its policy of disposal, giving away or selling land well beyond the “closing of the frontier” supposedly documented in the U.S. Census of 1890 . But withdrawals for conservation did mark a significant change in federal policy, whether saving spectacular natural scenery or safeguarding economic resources. The plunder of the Great Lakes forests by timber companies in the later nineteenth century convinced many that the government must retain some of its...

Urban Policy

Urban Policy   Reference library

Teresa L. Córdova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,455 words

...census.gov . United States Census Bureau . “Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX Metro Area, DP05 Demographic and Housing Estimates (Data),” 2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, 2010–2012, http://factfinder2.census.gov . United States Census Bureau . “Dallas–Fort Worth, TX CMSA, Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2000, Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data,” 2000, accessed 9 December 2013, http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_00_SF1_QTP9&prodType=table . United States Census Bureau ....

Statistical Policy Directive 15

Statistical Policy Directive 15   Reference library

G. Cristina Mora

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,110 words

...well as from low rates of education, they simply could not capture the attention of federal policymakers and make their issues of national concern. Much of their difficulty lay in the lack of statistical data. At the time the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau labeled their communities mainly as white and grouped their data in with those of European ancestry. Thus, while other activist groups, especially those lobbying for African American causes, could use census data to prove to lawmakers that their communities were poor and disadvantaged,...

Native Americans, Economic Aspects of U.S. Relations with

Native Americans, Economic Aspects of U.S. Relations with   Reference library

Dwanna L. Robertson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,241 words

...End Press, 1996. Garroutte, Eva Marie . “The Racial Formation of American Indians: Negotiating Legitimate Identities within Tribal and Federal Law.” American Indian Quarterly 25 (2001): 224–239. Prucha, Francis Paul . The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians . 2 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. U.S. Census Bureau. American Fact Finder. http://factfinder2.census.gov . U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics , http://ies.ed.gov. Dwanna...

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