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Cathars

A member of a heretical medieval Christian sect which professed a form of Manichaean dualism and sought to achieve great spiritual purity. The name is recorded in English from the mid 17th ...

Cathars

Cathars   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
127 words

... (Lat., Cathari, from Gk., katharoi, ‘pure ones’). Christian dualist heresy in W. Europe , which, in the 13th–14th cents., was a serious threat to the Catholic Church especially in S. France ( see ALBIGENSES ) and N. Italy. The origins of the movement are obscure, and although its doctrines were influenced by the Bogomils of Bulgaria, it remains a possibility that its dualism was an independent development or inheritance. The inner circle of the Cathars were the ‘perfects’, who followed a life of rigorous asceticism and praying the Lord's Prayer . ...

Cathars

Cathars   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
436 words

... . The Cathars—or Albigensians, as their southern French adherents were called—were dualists, believing that the world is dominated by the opposing principles of Good and Evil. They owed their theology to the Bogomils of the Byzantine empire, who had long preserved Manichean traditions and whose disciples spread the word in the second half of the 12th c. in Flanders, the Rhineland, France, and Lombardy, wherever anticlericalism had created fertile soil. Two schools of theologians, the mitigated and the absolute dualists, contended for supremacy among...

Cathars

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
296 words

... (Gk., ‘pure’). The name was applied to several sects in patristic times, but is used mainly for a large group of dissenters who posed a serious challenge to the Church in the 12th and 13th cents. They were known to their contemporaries under various names: Cathars, Manichaeans , Bulgari, Albigensians (in France), and Patarines (in Italy). Affirming two principles of good and evil, they rejected the flesh and material creation as evil; the purpose of redemption was the liberation of the soul from the flesh and the end of the ‘mixed’ state which had...

Cathars

Cathars   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (from Medieval Latin Cathari , ultimately from Greek katharoi , ‘pure’) Members of an ascetic heretical Christian sect, which flourished in parts of western Europe, especially in Languedoc, during the Middle Ages. They believed that the material world is evil, but that the human soul is good and can enable people to be reunited with God ( see also manicheans ). They held that Christ was an angel, who did not really undergo human birth or death. There were two ranks among the Cathars: the perfect (leaders) and believers (followers). Cathars are also...

Cathars

Cathars   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
394 words

... 1174 and 1177 ), and persuaded the French Cathars to adopt “absolute” dualism ( D. Obolensky in Okeanos 489–500). The Cathars seem generally to have believed that their faith came from the Balkans. Thus, a group of them, condemned to the stake in Cologne ca. 1143 , declared that their religion had its home “in Greece and certain other lands” (the latter expression is generally taken to refer to Bulgaria). The Balkan origin of Catharism is confirmed by terminology: their name is Greek, and the Cathars were often known in the West as Bulgari, Bogri ,...

Cathars, Albigensians

Cathars, Albigensians   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1167 ). In the 13 th c., the massive supply of specific documents provides precise information on Catharism: most of the sources are admittedly of Catholic origin ( Summae of anti-heretical polemic and archives of the Inquisition ), but they do not contradict what we learn from Cathar documents ( treatises and rituals), which gives us original glimpses into the heretical religious sensibility. At the start of the 13 th c., Catharism managed to implant itself lastingly in four parts of Europe: Bulgaria , Bosnia , northern Italy and ...

Cathars and Catharism

Cathars and Catharism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,026 words

... and Catharism The name given to the heretics and *heresy of southern *France and *Italy of the 12th and 13th centuries. Catharism taught a dualist religious doctrine and organizational structure that presented the greatest challenge to the medieval church. From the Greek katharos (pure), the Cathars were also known as Albigensians, Bulgari, and, in the vernacular, as ‘heretics’ or ‘sodomites’, but called themselves ‘Christians’ or ‘Good Men’ and ‘Good Women’. Harassed by *inquisition and *crusades , Catharism experienced revivals in the late...

Cathars

Cathars  

A member of a heretical medieval Christian sect which professed a form of Manichaean dualism and sought to achieve great spiritual purity. The name is recorded in English from the mid 17th century, ...
Cathar

Cathar   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
100 words

... (from Greek katharos , ‘pure’) A member of a medieval sect seeking to achieve a life of great purity. Cathars believed in a ‘dualist’ heresy. Their basic belief was that if God, being wholly good, had alone created the world it would have been impossible for evil to exist within it, and that another, diabolical, creative force must have taken part. They held that the material world and all within it were irredeemably evil. The heresy originated in Bulgaria and appeared in western Europe in the 1140s. In southern France the followers of this Christian...

Cathar

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
3 words

... • ...

Cathar

Cathar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... a member of a heretical medieval Christian sect which professed a form of Manichaean dualism and sought to achieve great spiritual purity. The name is recorded in English from the mid 17th century, and comes from medieval Latin Cathari (plural), from Greek katharoi ‘the...

Cathar

Cathar noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
74 words
Cathar

Cathar noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
46 words
Cathar

Cathar noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
88 words
Cathar

Cathar noun   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
63 words
Cathar

Cathar noun   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
102 words
7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... 1520s by official order. In such turmoil, a book could be found miraculously to survive even as the authorities strove to extinguish it. Just as Pedro Berruguete’s 1480 painting (now in the Prado) of such proceedings against the Cathars showed St Dominic’s works preserved intact alongside the charred detritus of the Cathar texts, so *Foxe reports a burning of Tyndale’s Testaments in 1526 in which the precious books simply refused to catch fire. The power of the book as a sacred object is bound up with its capacity to be rendered as a symbol. When...

Montségur

Montségur  

(castle) A 1,207-m-high stronghold, the penultimate Cathar bastion to surrender (1244), after a nine-month siege and a fifteen-day armistice. On 16 March, over 200 unrepentant Cathars were burned ...
Canso de la crotzada

Canso de la crotzada  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
This Occitan song recounting the Albigensian Crusade (1209–29), waged ostensibly against Catharism, is an incomplete epic poem of 9,582 lines, the work of two authors. The first third, covering the ...
consolamentum

consolamentum  

Cathar rite of initiation into the ranks of the elite. The ritual, which elevated the ordinary believer to the status of a perfectus, was derived from Bogomil practice and was ...

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