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caryatid

A carved female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as a column. They were first used in Greek architecture and the most famous caryatids are on the Erechtheum at Athens (c.421–406 ...

caryatides

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Andrew F. Stewart

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
200 words

... , a Greek term for column-shafts carved in the form of draped women; male equivalents were called Atlantides ( see atlas ). Apparently named after Caryae in Laconia , where virgins danced to Artemis Caryatis (Pratin. Lyr. 4; Paus. 3. 10. 7). Of near-eastern derivation (e.g. Tell Halaf), they appear in Greece around 550 bc , and are popular on late Archaic treasuries at Delphi ; the most famous are those of the Athenian Erechtheum . The Erechtheum accounts, however, simply call them korai ; in this case, perhaps, they were civic versions of...

Caryatides

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... or caryatids Figures of women in Greek costume, used in architecture to support entablatures. Caryae, in Laconia, sided with the Persians at thermopylae , as a result of which the Greeks destroyed the city, slew the men and made the women slaves. Praxiteles, to perpetuate the disgrace, employed figures of these women instead of columns. See also atlantes ; canephorus ; telamones...

caryatid

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
58 words

... A carved female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as a column. They were first used in Greek architecture and the most famous examples are on the Erechtheum at Athens ( c .421–406 bc ). The male equivalent of the caryatid is the atlas ; the term canephorae is applied to caryatids supporting baskets on their...

Caryatid

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
144 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid or telamon) used in place of a column in Greek and Roman architecture. Non-architectural, caryatid figures occur as decorative elements in the minor arts of Greece, Etruria and Imperial Rome. The most notable are the stands supporting mirror-discs, usually dating from the 6th and 5th centuries bc . Caryatids were revived in 18th- and 19th-century architecture, and during this period were also used in furniture, often as bronze mounts. Caryatids in a pier-table, gilt wood, bronze and marble,...

caryatid

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
64 words

... A sculptured female figure used as a column to support an entablature . The term carytades derives from Vitruvius ( fl. c .50–26 bc ), who believed the female figures of the Erechtheion in Athens represented Carian prisoners. ‘Caryatid’ is also used more generally (and incorrectly) to describe columns or pilasters wholly or partly in the shape of the human...

caryatid

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Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... (= a pillar in the shape of a female figure) is preferably pronounced /kar-ee- at -id/ —not / kar -ee-ә-tid/ , /kә- rɪ -ә-tid/ , or /kar-ee- ay -tid/...

Caryatid

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
650 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid ) used in place of a column. Caryatids first appeared in ancient Greek architecture around the mid-6th century bc ; they were also used in Roman architecture, and these models were revived in the 18th and 19th centuries. Classical caryatids are always clothed; they may be dressed in the Ionic style and may have either a polos or a high-sided crown on their heads, or a wider drum representing a basket containing sacred objects. When dressed in Doric costume, however, caryatids bear the capital...

caryatid

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The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
130 words

... . A carved female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as a column. Caryatids were first used in Greek architecture and the most famous examples are on the Erechtheum at Athens ( c. 421–406 bc ). The male equivalent is the atlas , and the term ‘canephorae’ is applied to caryatids supporting baskets on their heads. Caryatids are mentioned by Vitruvius and conjectural illustrations of them appear in several architectural treatises of the Renaissance , but Jean Goujon (in the Louvre in 1550–1 ) was the only artist of the time to use them on...

caryatid

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
38 words

... [Co] The sculptured female figure used in place of a column to support an entablature or architrave. Some of the earliest known examples were used in the treasury at Delphi and date to the 6th century bc...

caryatid

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Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
302 words

...of Cnidus ( c .550 bc ) and Siphonos ( c .525 bc ), date from more than 150 years before the destruction of Caryae. Probably of Near Eastern origin (from Tell Halaf), in both cases there are two caryatids, standing on a pedestal and supporting a tall cylindrical drum. They are the rudimentary prototypes of the most famous examples, the six figures in the caryatid porch of the Erechtheion ( 421–405 bc ), on the Acropolis, Athens. These are much less sculptural, since they carry a conventional capital on their heads, and the vertical folds of their dress...

Caryatids

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
164 words

... , female figures employed as weight-bearing elements in architecture and decorative arts. According to Vitruvius ( De architectura 1.1.5) they symbolized the punishment of the women of Caryae, a town near Sparta, for betrayal in the Graeco-Persian Wars ( 480–479 bc ). Female supports appear considerably earlier, however, in the Near East, at Delphi and Athens, and on perirrhanteria (ritual basins), bronze mirrors, and other implements, all belying Vitruvius' account of their origins. Their nomenclature may, nonetheless, derive from postures assumed...

caryatids

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Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
94 words

... , column‐shafts carved in the form of draped women. Apparently named after Caryae in Laconia , where virgins danced to Artemis Caryatis . Of near‐eastern derivation, they appear in Greece c. 550 bc , and are popular on late Archaic treasuries at Delphi ; the most famous are those of the Athenian Erechtheum . The Erechtheum accounts, however, simply call them korai ; in this case, perhaps, they were civic versions of the private korē dedications of the past ( see art, funerary, greek ( Archaic period ) ). Copies of the Erechtheum caryatids...

Caryatid

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The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid) used in place of a column. Caryatids first appeared in ancient Greek architecture around the mid-6th century bc ; they were also used in Roman architecture, and these models were revived in the 18th and 19th centuries. Classical caryatids are always clothed; they may be dressed in the Ionic style and may have either a polos or a high-sided crown on their heads, or a wider drum representing a basket containing sacred objects. When dressed in Doric costume, however, caryatids bear the capital...

caryatid(e)

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A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
118 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(e) ( pl . caryatid(e)s ) Carved, draped, straight, standing female figure (cora) , on its head an astragal (enriched with bead-and-reel ), ovolo (enriched with egg-and-dart ), and square abacus , used as a column substitute, supporting an entablature . Examples from Greek Antiquity include those of the south porch of the Erechtheion , Athens ( c .421–407 bc ), where six figures supported the roof. A similar draped female figure with a basket-like form over the head instead of the astragal-ovolo-abacus capital arrangement is a canephora ...

caryă'tids

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
88 words

... ( karyātidĕs ) The Greek name for columns carved in the form of women in long drapery. They appear in Greece c. 550 bc . The most famous are the six which supported the roof of the small porch on the south-west corner of the Erechtheum , one of which is now in the British Museum. The derivation of the name is unknown; one suggestion is that it means ‘maidens of Caryae’, a place in Laconia, and it is perhaps connected with the girl dancers who performed there in honour of...

caryatid

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
33 words

... (archit.; orig. and usu. pl. ) female figure used as a column. XVI. — F. cariatide — It. cariatide , or their source, L. caryatides — Gr. karuátides ( pl. ) priestesses of Artemis at Karuai (Caryae) in Laconia...

caryatid

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The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... a stone carving of a draped female figure, used as a pillar to support the entablature of a Greek or Greek-style building. The name comes (in the mid 16th century) via French and Italian from Latin caryatides from Greek karuatides , plural of karuatis ‘priestess of Artemis at Caryae’, from Karuai (Caryae) in...

caryatid

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
383 words

... • caryatid , cravatted, dratted, fatted, matted • distracted , protracted • unadapted • unformatted • Hampstead • downhearted , good-hearted, hard-hearted, heavy-hearted, kind-hearted, light-hearted, lion-hearted, overparted, tender-hearted, uncharted, warm-hearted, wholehearted • unplanted • fetid , indebted, minareted, rosetted • aspected , disaffected, disconnected, invected, unaffected, uncollected, unconnected, uncorrected, undetected, undirected, unelected, unexpected, uninflected, unprotected, unselected, unsuspected • unmelted • ...

caryatid

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Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
80 words
caryatid

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New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
79 words

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